Why to Process Thermal Aging Test in PCBA?
Thermal Aging Testing is performed to determine the operational life of the PCB board. It tests the capability of PCB components to withstand extreme temperatures for an extended period of time. The reliability of components placed on a printed circuit board decreases exponentially with time. This eventually results in the failure of the PCB due to differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) across the PCB material. If you are curious about the professional information about thermal aging test in PCBA process, please check and read the content below in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why to Process Thermal Aging Test in PCBA? The purpose of PCB aging tests is to gather data for assessing the long-term reliability of a PCBA that may be placed into continuous operation for over 100,000 hours (at least 20 years). These tests evaluate an entire PCBA, so they tell you the overall reliability of the bare circuit board, its components, solder and mechanical components, and any other materials used in the construction of the PCBA. Obviously, a PCBA cannot be tested for 20 years continuously, so test engineers will perform simulated life testing or other tests to evaluate long-term stability. With performance requirements and fabrication requirements becoming more complex over time, so has the documentation process used by PCB manufacturers and design teams. With the right design software, a design team can quickly generate their test and fabrication data directly from their PCB layout. Important requirements like the reliability of solder joints, required PCB materials, use of conformal coatings, and a range of test methods can be specified within the project documents and easily shared with manufacturers. What is the process of thermal aging test in PCBA? Thermal aging applied to PCBONLINE's PCB assemblies or end-products is at changing temperatures for 250 hours in a temperature chamber, following the ECIA - EIA-364-17 standard - "TP-17B Temperature Life with or without Electrical Load Test Procedure for Electrical Connectors and Sockets". The PCB assemblies are subjected to changes in air temperature in the thermal aging chamber with temperature elevates gradually to 105℃. Through the combined effects of high-and-low temperature changes and electric power, the defects of the assembled circuit board are exposed, such as poor welding, component parameter mismatch, temperature drift, and the faults caused during the debugging process. So we can eliminate the defects. Thermal aging also functions to stabilize the parameters of the non-defective circuit boards. What are the main steps of thermal aging test in PCBA? During PCBA production, aging test is necessary. The aging test generally simulates the external humid and high-temperature environment to test the PCBA finished product, so that the functional board is subjected to the change of air temperature in a thermal aging device with temperature changes, and through the combined effects of high temperature, low temperature, high and low-temperature changes, and electric power, Expose the defects of the functional board, such as poor welding, component parameter mismatch, temperature drift and failures caused during the debugging process, so as to eliminate it, and stabilize the parameters of the non-defective functional board. Because this situation has also occurred in electronic processing factories nowadays, PCBA boards are normal when shipped, but various defects appear after a short period of use, so in fact, it is necessary to conduct PCBA board aging tests. 1. Put the functional board at the ambient temperature into the heat aging equipment at the same temperature. 2. The PCBA board is in operation. 3. Then the temperature in the equipment should be reduced to the specified temperature value at a specified rate. 4. After the temperature in the equipment reaches a stable level, the PCBA board should be exposed to low temperature conditions for 2h. 5. Then the temperature inside the equipment should rise to the specified temperature at a specified rate. 6. After the temperature in the device reaches a stable level, the PCBA board should be exposed to high temperature for 2h. 7. Then the temperature inside the equipment should be reduced to room temperature at a prescribed rate. 8. Repeat 3 to 7 consecutively. Until the specified aging time, and the PCBA board is measured and recorded once according to the specified aging time. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/29/2023 16:50
What Are the Main Errors in PCB Manufacturing?
To start your checklist, start at the foundation of your PCB design and work your way through it. Some fundamental tasks must be done first to complete a successful layout, and you want to be sure to account for them. In fact, many PCB design departments will have multiple design reviews with different checklists for each review. What are errors in PCB manufacturing? If you are curious about errors in PCB manufacturing, please check and read the content below for more information in this passage.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What Are the Main Errors in PCB Manufacturing? Temperature & Moisture PCBs are affected by temperature, both in storage, and when they are installed in components. Extreme temperatures or large temperature fluctuations may cause components or joints to break or fail. Many people take the maximum or minimum safe temperature into consideration, without thinking about the fluctuations in temperature that may occur either during operation or in storage. Exposure to moisture, both during the manufacturing process and in storage, can cause shorts to occur and may lead to defects in components. Humidity in the air, as well as the moisture content in the solder can wreak havoc on printed circuit boards, causing corrosion. Plating Hole Defects Holes carry electricity from one side of the board to the other. Plating of the hole wall during manufacture. During this, If the copper deposition is incorrect, it will create plating voids, leaving gaps in the wall with no copper coating. It could happen due to air bubbles, contamination in the holes, contaminated materials, and other similar reasons. You can prevent this from happening by following the manufacturer’s direction and cleaning the equipment as instructed. Soldering Defects The bulk of printed circuit board defects can be traced back to a soldering issue. Soldering is a technical skill that becomes even more difficult when dealing with the extremely small components on a printed circuit board. Some of the most common soldering defects include: Open joints, sometimes called “dry joints,” occur when the solder doesn’t bond correctly with the point of contact, typically the pad. Occasionally, open joints are caused by using too much solder, which causes the component to lift. Shifts occur when the printed circuit board or component is not aligned correctly during the soldering process. Shifts can result in open joints, shorts, and crossed signal lines. Short circuits, often referred to simply as “shorts,” most often occur due to a soldering error called solder bridging. What is the importance of PCB error analysis? As smart phones, tablets, and wearable devices have become smaller, thinner, and more functional, PCBs and components continue to be even smaller, denser, and more layered. In the automotive industry, research and development of technologies such as automatic brakes and autonomous driving has promoted computerized control of important components. Such control then expects PCBs and electronic components to have high durability and reliability so as to withstand long-term stress caused by driving, accelerating, and stopping. Terminals and devices now have an important role in various daily situations, and cars require a high degree of safety. Any failures and defects of important components that are computerized in such products can lead to serious trouble or accidents. To evaluate the durability and reliability of PCBs and electronic components, reliability evaluation tests, including acceleration tests, have become increasingly important. In addition to such tests, using microscopes to identify defects and failure causes is more important than ever. What are the basics of avoid PCB error? To start your checklist, start at the foundation of your PCB design and work your way through it. Some fundamental tasks must be done first to complete a successful layout, and you want to be sure to account for them. In fact, many PCB design departments will have multiple design reviews with different checklists for each review. These could include a pre-layout review, a component placement review, and a critical routing review, for example. All of these elements are included here and you can decide how best to organize the list, or lists, for your workflow: Schematic· Complete: Has the circuitry been completed in the schematic? It is a good idea to review the schematic prior to the layout to ensure that any missing circuitry is caught before the physical layout is started.· Checked: Have all of the schematic design rule checks (DRCs) been run and any errors cleaned up?· Ready for layout: Have all of the components been updated to their latest library versions? Many board designs have been ruined because the schematic still contained preliminary library parts instead of their final versions. Board outline· Correct documentation: Do you have the latest board information to work with? This would include mechanical dimensions, as well as connector and other mechanical part locations.· Available data files: If you are working with mechanical CAD data that will be used in your PCB layout tools, are those 3D files ready and up to date?· Board layer stackup: Do you have board layer stackup finalized with the correct configuration and materials? This is important for good signal integrity and manufacturability.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/28/2023 16:56
How to Calculate the PCB Component to Component Spacing?
PCB Masters choose components early in the design process, realizing that this is the best way to ensure there are no conflicts between the actual design and the components being assembled. If you factor in component sizes from the very beginning, component space and sizes are no longer a concern and the circuit board assembly process can proceed without barriers. This also leads to the next tip. In this passage we will provide all the information about PCB component to component spacing.If you are going to learn more about the knowledge of PCB component to component spacing, please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How to Calculate the PCB Component to Component Spacing? The board designer should talk to the circuit designer and engineers to see if the component size can be reduced, creating additional space on the board. After all, a smaller part will mean a smaller footprint on the board. Never mix lead-free components with components that are not specified for lead-free assembly. If any component requires lead-free assembly and no substitute for conventional leaded solder is available, then the entire board must be assembled lead-free and all components must be qualified for lead-free assembly. Sometimes the only package available for a particular device is a lead-free BGA. However, boards that will be used for military projects typically must be assembled with conventional leaded solder, as per government requirements. The designer must either obtain a waiver from the customer to allow lead-free assembly; modify the design to use a device that is available in a package for assembly with conventional leaded solder; or have the BGA reballed for leaded solder (an expensive procedure that can damage parts). What Is the Purpose of IPC Component Spacing Guidelines? The IPC component spacing guidelines exist for two reasons: to prevent component overlap that could cause physical damage and to prevent electrical interference that could cause performance problems. Of the two, physical overlaps are a simpler problem to correct. CAD software can catch most instances, and many designers have enough knowledge to identify when components can’t fit in a space without computerized help. The IPC component spacing guidelines are a third check on these potential physical problems. As long as designers follow the spacing guidelines, there should not be physical overlaps of components except in special circumstances that require additional engineering and development. Component spacing guidelines also manage negative space—the places where components are not present. Negative space on a PCB can be just as important as the regions where components exist, and this space is particularly important when preventing electrical interference. If conductive traces or circuits are too close together, unintentional connections may form between them as electrons jump between circuits. These unexpected connections reduce the strength of signals traveling through some regions of the PCB and can increase the amount of power flowing through other areas. Reductions in power can cause shorts or failures, while surges in power can cause physical damage or overloads. What is the importance of PCB component-to-component spacing? Placing the components on your printed circuit board design is the key to creating a PCB that performs as expected. Bypass capacitors must be close enough to their associated devices to provide an immediate reservoir of power and reduce parasitic inductance between them. Schematic signal paths must be recreated in the layout by placing the components precisely so that the high-speed signals can travel the shortest distance possible between pins. The placement must also be organized so that critical routings doesn’t cross split power planes and thereby lose their return paths. These are important considerations for designing a successful high-speed printed circuit board, but as we said, there is a balance that must be maintained as well. Parts that are placed close together for performance may end up impacting the ability of the contract manufacturer to easily assemble the board. This may result in added time and cost, or at worst, costly redesigns. To avoid manufacturing problems like these, there are some things you can do with your component placement to help ensure the success of your PCB assembly.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/27/2023 16:39
What Are the Common Defects of PCB Soldering?
As smartphones, tablets, and wearable devices have become smaller, thinner, and more functional, PCBs and components continue to be even smaller, denser, and more layered. In the automotive industry, research and development of technologies such as automatic brakes and autonomous driving has promoted computerized control of important components. Such control then expects PCBs and electronic components to have high durability and reliability so as to withstand long-term stress caused by driving, accelerating, and stopping. If you are searching for more information about PCB defect detection, you can check and read the content below in this passage for professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What Are the Common Defects of PCB Soldering? Soldering defects can arise for a variety of reasons, ranging from operator error to pollutants. The most well-known -- and well-hated -- of these defects are: · Opens· Excessive solder· Component shifting· Cold joints· Solder bridges· Webbing and splashes· Lifted pads As frustrating as these defects can be, it’s a valuable lesson to experience them at least once. And, to pass the solderability test standard, knowledge of soldering defects is critical. Pin and Connector Checks One of the important components of PCB is the pin and connector, which help relay signals in operations. Incorrect placement of the pin can result in damage to the connector. To prevent this defect, you can use a pattern-matching tool to check the connector’s correct placement. Thus, you can use this pattern-matching tool, usually in a vision tool kit, to locate and group patterns. Hence, it provides a score that indicates how much the patterns match the intended pattern or location. However, to ensure the alignment of pins, you can use a telecentric lens. The magnification of a telecentric lens does not change, which prevents parallax error, which a conventional lens can cause. However, a thorough check of pins and connectors will go a long way in preventing this defect in cheap correct PCB service provider. Thankfully, there are various PCB manufacturing companies. Heat Dissipation Analysis Most electronic components tend to get unusually hot whenever they are working at their full capacity. Hence, this can lead to overheating if they are not properly checked. Also, a hot PCB heat sink can be a shock to unsuspecting technicians. Likewise, PCB’s extreme temperatures can lead to a reduced lifespan of products hence. What is the importance of PCB failure analysis? As smart phones, tablets, and wearable devices have become smaller, thinner, and more functional, PCBs and components continue to be even smaller, denser, and more layered. In the automotive industry, research and development of technologies such as automatic brakes and autonomous driving has promoted computerized control of important components. Such control then expects PCBs and electronic components to have high durability and reliability so as to withstand long-term stress caused by driving, accelerating, and stopping. Terminals and devices now have an important role in various daily situations, and cars require a high degree of safety. Any failures and defects of important components that are computerized in such products can lead to serious trouble or accidents. To evaluate the durability and reliability of PCBs and electronic components, reliability evaluation tests, including acceleration tests, have become increasingly important. In addition to such tests, using microscopes to identify defects and failure causes is more important than ever. What are the common defects during PCB manufacturing? The complexity of the PCB design and manufacturing processes means there are numerous opportunities for PCB failure issues to arise. Some of these failures are a result of design oversights, such as insufficient clearances or incorrect measurements, which can negatively affect the functionality of the finished product. Others may result from problems in the manufacturing process, such as drilling errors or over-etching, which can be equally catastrophic. Fortunately, most of these errors can be avoided with knowledge and consideration for the manufacturing process, as well as awareness of the more common PCB manufacturing issues. To help you and your company better understand and avoid the potential errors in your printed circuit board designs, we’ve compiled a list of the most common issues experienced in PCB manufacturing, why they occur and how they can be prevented below: Plating voidsPlated through-holes are copper-coated holes in a printed circuit board. These holes allow electricity to be carried from one side of the circuit board to the other. To create these holes, the PCB board fabricator drills holes through the circuit board, puncturing the material all the way through. A layer of copper is then added to the surface of the material and along the walls of these holes through an electroplating process. Defects as a result of contamination, air bubbles or insufficient cleaning can be avoided by cleaning the material properly after drilling. Additionally, defects from faulty drilling can be avoided by closely following the manufacturer’s directions during use, such as the recommended number of drill hits, drill in-feeds and drill speeds. Both problems can be avoided by hiring a well-qualified and experienced PCB manufacturing company. Insufficient copper-to-edge clearanceCopper is an incredibly conductive metal, which is used as an active component of PCBs. However, copper is also relatively soft and vulnerable to corrosion. To prevent corrosion and protect the copper from interacting with its environment, this copper is covered with other materials. However, when a PCB is trimmed, if the copper is too close to the edge, part of this coating can be trimmed as well, exposing the copper layer underneath. This can cause numerous problems in the functionality of the board. Bad solderingImproper soldering during PCB assembly can lead to major issues. One of the most common kinds of poor soldering occurs when a technician doesn’t heat the solder enough, leading to cold soldering, which can cause PCB failure. Additionally, moisture during the soldering process can contaminate the PCB pad and other components. This contamination can cause PCB components to burn and create connection problems. Companies often use visual or X-ray inspections to detect bad soldering. SliversSlivers are narrow wedges of copper or solder mask produced during the PCB manufacturing process and can cause serious problems during the fabrication of circuit boards. These slivers are often produced during the etching process and can occur in one of two ways. First, slivers can be produced when an extremely long, thin feature of the copper or solder mask is etched away. In some cases, this sliver detaches before it fully dissolves. These detached slivers can float around in the chemical bath, and can potentially land on another board, adding an unintended connection.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/24/2023 14:56
What Are the Types of Environmental Testing in PCB?
Environmental testing is about more than just elevated temperature and humidity tests. A series of environmental tests can include shock, vibration, and mechanical tests. These tests should be performed in accordance with the IEC 60068 environmental testing standards. These tests are intended to ensure a new product can survive under when stored or transported at extreme temperatures and humidity, as well as in the operational environment. In this passage, we are providing all the information about environmental testing in PCB manufacturing. If you are going to search environmental testing in PCB, please check and read the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What Are the Types of Environmental Testing in PCB? Highly Accelerated TestsAccelerated tests include highly accelerated life test (HALT) and highly accelerated stress screen (HASS). These tests assess product reliability in controlled environments, including high temperature, high humidity, and vibration/shock tests while the device is powered. The goal is to simulate conditions that could lead to the imminent failure of a new product. During testing, the product is monitored in the simulated environment. Environmental testing of electronics normally involves performing tests in a small environmental chamber. Product engineers are sometimes reluctant to accept HALT/HASS results because the stresses placed on the system may be over-spec. In other words, they may exceed those found in the product’s envisioned environment. This has caused many engineers to refuse to fix known problems identified in HALT/HASS tests, only to have these same problems cause product failure later. An experienced CM can often identify simple design and assembly changes that can drastically extend the lifetime of your new product. Humidity and CorrosionMany PCBs will be deployed in a humid environment, thus a common test for PCB reliability is a water absorption test. In this type of test, a PCB is weighed before and after being put in an environmental chamber with controlled humidity. Any water that adsorbs onto the board will increase the board’s weight, and any significant change in weight results in disqualification. When these tests are performed during operation, the exposed conductors should not corrode in a humid environment. When brought up to some potential, copper can easily oxidize, which is why exposed copper is normally plated with an oxidation-resistant alloy. Some examples include ENIG, ENIPIG, HASL, nickel-gold, and nickel. Thermal Shock and CyclingThermal testing is normally performed separately from humidity testing. These tests involve repeatedly changing the board temperature and examining how thermal expansion/contraction affect reliability. In thermal shock testing, the board is rapidly moved between two extreme temperatures using a 2-chamber system. The cold temperature is usually somewhere below freezing, and the high temperature is normally above the glass transition temperature for the substrate (above ~130 °C). Thermal cycling is performed using a single chamber, and the temperature is changed by several from one extreme to the other at 10 °C per minute. In both tests, the board will expand or contract as the board’s temperature changes. During expansion, high stress will be placed on the conductors and solder points, which accelerates the lifetime of the product and allows mechanical failure points to be identified. Why we need environmental testing in PCB manufacturing? Not all PCB assemblies and products require environmental testing, and it is more common in some industries than others. For example, environmental testing of PCB assemblies is a regular requirement for products intended for the military and defence industries. In short, if your product is used in an extreme environment, such as a desert, where the days are very hot and the nights are cold, or at sea, where water-related corrosion and repeated shock are primary risks, your PCB assemblies will need to be tested under these conditions. Does environmental testing affect PCB assemblies? No. The environmental testing process does not have an adverse effect on the appearance or performance of PCB assemblies. Indeed, should you want your circuit boards to look as nice as they possibly can, an expert contract electronics manufacturing partner should be able to offer a cleaning service, or you should be able to make use of your contract manufacturer’s cleaning process. Crucially, it is worth finding out from a prospective contract electronics manufacturer if they perform environmental testing of PCB assemblies on a batch-testing or an all-boards basis. You should only use a partner that performs testing on all of your boards. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/23/2023 11:28
What Are Methods of Protecting PCB Intellectual Property?
Circuit boards should be rigorously compatible with, a PCB layout created by the designer using PCB design software. Commonly-used PCB design software includes Altium Designer, OrCAD, Pads, KiCad, Eagle etc. NOTE: Before PCB fabrication, designers should inform their contract manufacturer about the PCB design software version used to design the circuit since it helps avoid issues caused by discrepancies. If you are searching for more information about intellectual property in PCB manufacturing, please check and read the content below in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What Are Methods of Protecting PCB Intellectual Property? The design of a printed circuit board involves the use of different types of data, and intellectual property can be found in the following: Schematics: Often transmitted in a PDF format, schematic designs usually contain component types and values and connectivity information. Netlists: These text files will detail all of the connectivity of the board. Bill of materials (BOM): These files will list all of the parts used in the design along with their reference designators, values, and part numbers. Component symbols: These files can either be separate or embedded within the design database. Although most symbol information can be easily accessed from part vendors and other sources, some application-specific parts could yield proprietary data. Constraints and stackup information: This data contains high-speed design information, such as the configuration of the PCB layers used in reverse engineering a design.To keep this sensitive data secure, you either need to control how the information is sent out or remove the ability for thieves to access it: Controlling data by putting security practices in place From advanced tools and networking architectures to robust processes and procedures, you can add a lot of security to how you transmit your sensitive data. You will also want to make sure that your employees are fully trained on the processes you put into place. The world’s best security won’t help if someone sends some design data that is not adequately protected. How additive manufacturing PCB intellectual property? The risks involved in sending a PCB design to an overseas manufacturer as well as the risk of outsourcing on-shore, are best overcome by keeping manufacturing capabilities in-house. Rather than creating an entire traditional PCB manufacturing and assembly line, electronics companies can use additive manufacturing systems to produce quick-turn prototypes and finished products entirely in-house. This can be done with a lower cost per board and reduced fabrication time compared to traditional prototyping processes. As new manufacturing methodologies like lights out manufacturing increase in popularity, designers and IT managers need to take greater control over access and administration of the manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing systems represent a continued advance in automation and will inevitably be integrated into fully connected factories under the IPC-CFX standards. This level of integration requires careful segmentation and administration of manufacturing assets throughout the network in a facility. Bringing these capabilities in-house allows IT managers to take complete control over access to sensitive design information and access to these systems. Contrast this with the typical situation involving an overseas manufacturer, where a company has no control over access to sensitive design data. As additive manufacturing systems become more ubiquitous and their capabilities broaden, more industries will be adopting these systems and processes to complement or replace their existing traditional processes. Designers and engineers will be able to work with these systems directly, eliminating confusion and ambiguity that can arise when working with an overseas manufacturer. Using an in-house additive manufacturing system can also improve security companies’ research productivity due to the flexibility it provides.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/22/2023 16:35
What Are the Environmental Factors of Electronic PCB Failures?
PCBs are prone to a variety of defects that impede proper manufacturing, costing companies money. Defects such as shorts, spurs, mousebites, and pinholes cause issues like current leakage and open circuits, quickly degrading performance or rendering PCBs useless. PCB manufacturers must strive to ship defect-free units to remain competitive and ensure customer satisfaction. The main objective of Etching process is to remove the exposed unwanted copper other than the required circuit pattern. In order to minimize scrap caused by the wrongly etched PCB panel, inspection has to be done in early stage. If you are looking for more information about PCB fault detection, please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What Are the Environmental Factors of Electronic PCB Failures? If you have resided in a warm-weather climate (Florida) for the majority of your life, then you can relate to a new recruit (Me) serving in the Navy in Great Lakes, Illinois experiencing culture shock during his first Chicago, winter. I can attest that temperature is a disruptive environmental factor. Well, temperature is also a disruptive environmental factor when it pertains to electronic circuits. Temperature changes can indeed cause an electronic circuit to fail and in turn, cause a PCB’s malfunction. As you may know, with temperature changes, you will experience expansion and contraction of the PCB. These expansions and contractions, in turn, brings about the potential risk of a warped board and damage to solder joints. Another equally devastating environmental factor is moisture. If moisture is introduced to your electronic circuits, it can cause rust, oxidation, and corrosion. How to build application of PCB fault detection? With all of the parts, connections, and other critical aspects of a circuit board that must be examined, some complicated PCBs can have up to three or four thousand opportunities for errors. Locating a single problem out of so many possibilities is simply too many for manual inspection methods to reliably find, especially when you consider the volume of boards. Failure analysts are employed to ensure defects are kept to a minimum. But inspecting and diagnosing defects manually is challenging. There are multiple defects to detect, an extremely low tolerance for errors, and significant expertise required to reliably recognize and handle flawed units. Considering the time to train new analysts, and the cognitive load required to ensure reliability, an automated solution to detecting and classifying defects in PCBs is in demand. In this article we will build a full PCB Defect Classifier that automates the task of detecting and classifying defects in printed circuit boards. I always encourage AI practitioners to build full products rather than throwing models over the fence to developers and other engineers. Your machine learning must exist in concert with a full application; thus only through its survival inside a holistic product can you be certain you’re building for users, not engineers. How PCB fault detection using image processing inspects a circuit board? Depending on what portion of the circuit board is being inspected, different AOI systems are used. Solder paste inspection equipment, for instance, will use laser scanners with micron resolution to determine the amount of solder on a pad. The automated optical inspection systems used for PCB assembly verification rely on LED illumination and high-resolution cameras to capture circuit board images. Using a known good, or “golden” first article board, the AOI system will capture images of its part markings and solder joints. These images are clear enough to record polarity indicators, color codes, and other markings and compare subsequent circuit boards. Once recorded, the system can detect incorrectly aligned components, open solder joints, and solder bridges on new boards using the standard. The image recognition can also be de-tuned to reduce false detections or increase its sensitivity for extra critical areas of the board. AOI systems can also be programmed to accept alternate part numbers to keep acceptable replacement parts from being flagged as errors. This ability to fine-tune the AOI system allows operators to configure it to its most optimum level for fault detection. Now let’s take a look at the actual inspection process used during manufacturing. What are the PCB common faults? Soldering faultThe bulk of printed circuit board defects can be traced back to a soldering issue. Soldering is a technical skill that becomes even more difficult when dealing with the extremely small components on a printed circuit board. Soldering defects can be minimized both during the design process, and during the soldering process. Some of the most common soldering defects include: Open joints, sometimes called “dry joints,” occur when the solder doesn’t bond correctly with the point of contact, typically the pad. Open joints do not always cause your circuit to fail, since there may be solder there that makes poor or occasional contact. Open joints are caused by physical movement or bending, incorrect solder temperature, design or manufacturing errors, as well as impact and shifting during use or transport. Temperature faultPrinted circuit boards are affected by temperature, both in storage, and when they are installed in components. Extreme temperatures or large temperature fluctuations may cause components or joints to break or fail. Many people take the maximum or minimum safe temperature into consideration, without thinking about the fluctuations in temperature that may occur either during operation or in storage. Temperature fluctuations can cause expansion and contraction to take place too quickly, causing premature failure of the printed circuit board. Plating faultHoles carry electricity from one side of the board to the other. Plating of the hole wall during manufacture. During this, By establishing the electrical conductivity from the top in the endplate portion depositing copper. If the copper deposition is incorrect, it will create plating voids, leaving gaps in the wall with no copper coating. It could happen due to air bubbles, contamination in the holes, contaminated materials, and other similar reasons. You can prevent this from happening by following the manufacturer’s direction and cleaning the equipment as instructed.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/21/2023 16:02
What Are the Advantages of Heavy Copper PCB?
The main benefit of heavy copper PCB is the capability to support frequency to excessive current, elevated temperatures and recurring thermal cycling, which can do harm to a regular circuit board in seconds. What’s more, there is a great demand for heavy copper PCBs in the computer, automotive, military, and industrial controls. If you are curious about the professional knowledge of heavy copper PCB, you can check and read this passage and get more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What does heavy copper PCB offer? Heavy copper PCB has a lot to offer. It has got some unique features that make it an ideal option for high-end applications. Let’s discuss some of the benefits of this PCB; · Great thermal distribution: Due to its copper-plated vias, this PCB offers high thermal resistance. Heavy copper PCB are used in applications that demand high speed and high frequency. You can also use this PCB at harsh temperatures. · Mechanical strength: Heavy copper PCB feature great mechanical strength. When this PCB is used, it makes the electrical system durable and robust. · Good conductor: Heavy copper circuit boards are a good conductor. They are utilized in the production of electronics due to this feature. They help to link various boards together. These boards can transfer current. · Onboard heat sink: Heavy copper boards offer an onboard heat sink. With these boards, you can achieve effective heat sinks on mosaic surfaces. · Great dissipation factor: Heavy copper PCB are ideal for large components with a high loss of power. These PCBs prevent overheating from occurring in electrical systems. They dissipate excess heat effectively. What Are the Advantages of Heavy Copper PCB? In additions, the heavy copper PCB board is also used in other purposes: In addition, there are some other benefits of heavy copper PCB as follows: · Compact product size because of several copper weights on the same layer of circuitry; · Onboard high-power-density planar transformers; · Heavy copper-plated vias pass the elevated current through the PCB and are good for transferring the heat to an outer heat sink. What are the applications of heavy copper PCB? Heavy copper PCBs are used in the following applications: · Solar Power Converters· Torque Controls· Safety and Signal Systems· Power Line Monitors· UPS Systems· Rail Traction Systems· Protection Relays· Storage Pumping Plants· Overload Relays· HVAC Systems What are the guidelines of heavy copper PCB design? Heavy copper printed circuit boards may require a thicker final board thickness due to increased copper weight, particularly if controlled dielectric requirements are also present. PCB International strongly recommends sending us the Board Stackup to support so we may confirm your desired board thickness and copper weight requirement can be successfully achieved. With heavy copper Printed Circuit Boards, minimum trace width and space requirements are increased due to the increased risk of causing unintended short circuits. See below (Table 1) for recommended minimum trace width and space for heavy copper boards up to 8oz. Please keep in mind that we are capable of smaller trace/space per oz than shown in this table. However, the pricing is higher, and requires a custom quote. For all heavy copper Printed Circuit Boards, PCB International strongly recommends that our clients send us their board requirements and Gerber files for review, and to obtain a quote. What is the performance of heavy copper PCB design? Thick copper PCB has the best elongation performance and is not limited by the processing temperature. It can be used in hot melt welding methods such as oxygen blowing at a high melting point and not brittle at low temperatures. Even in extremely corrosive atmospheric environments, copper PCB forms a strong, non-toxic passivation protective layer. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/20/2023 14:29
What Are the Causes of Solder Bridge in PCB?
To have a perfect understanding of what bridge soldering is, you have to know what soldering is. Soldering is a way of bringing small pieces together on the surface of a circuit board. It connects electrical components on a PCB. Soldering is an important aspect of PCB manufacturing. During soldering, materials such as soldering iron, soldering paste, and solder flux are used. The soldering process is simple and straightforward. However, mistakes occur. Therefore, bridge soldering is one of these mistakes. In this passage, if you are searching for the definition of solder bridge and the methods to prevent it, please check and read the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What Are the Causes of Solder Bridge in PCB? While there is no way to guarantee you never see solder bridges on your circuit boards, there are a few key things you can do in your design and preparation to greatly reduce your solder bridging risk. Use the correct lead lengths for through-hole partsThrough-hole components with leads that are too long can cause solder bridges. The correct lead lengths for your application will depend on the size and thickness of your PCB, the size and mass of the component, and the type of soldering you plan to employ (wave, selective, etc). Use the correct hole size and pad diameter for through-hole partsMany solder bridges are the result of holes and/or surface pads that are too large. An annular ring pad that is too large decreases the distance between the solderable surfaces of two adjacent pins. This decreased distance, especially in a wave solder operation, greatly increases the risk of a solder bridge. So follow datasheets to correctly size both the plated through hole and the pad. Design to the highest producibility level possibleDesigning for producibility applies to both surface-mount and through-hole components and relates to the ease of producibility given the dimensions and spacings of your land patterns for your parts. The IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publishes industry standards for PCB design and assembly, and they have defined Level A as the preferred level for general producibility. In some designs very small spacings are unavoidable, but in many designs, they are very avoidable. The best practice here is to avoid using unnecessarily small parts or tight spacing. How to fix Solder Bridge of PCB? There are several reasons why solder bridging occurs. This includes incorrect use of solder masks, excessive solder, incorrect soldering technique. This defect can be avoided at times. However, there are times it happens. It is, therefore, important to learn how to fix this problem. To fix a solder bridge, you need a solder flask, solder wick, and temperature adjustable soldering iron. Follow these steps to fix a solder bridge. Monitor the temperatureUsually, you want a large tip to transfer sufficient heat into the solder wick. You need to monitor the temperature. Ensure the temperature is higher than the soldering temperature. This will compensate for the solder wick absorbing some heat from the joint. For instance, if you solder at 270°C, you would have to increase the temperature to 300°C when utilizing the solder wick. Surface tensionSurface tension refers to the possibility of fluid surfaces to shrink into the smallest area possible. The type of skills you have got and how effective your flux is might help you to wick the bridge away without needing a solder wick. You can utilize surface tension. Surface tension helps to remove the solder from the bridge. You can fix a solder bridge without utilizing a solder wick. You just need to clean the top of the soldering iron before you try again. However, you need to be careful, heating the pin or pad severely with this approach can damage the integrated circuit or PCB pad. What are the applications of solder paste in PCB? Electronic components were first hand soldered onto circuit boards until the wave soldering process was perfected for the mass production of PCBs. Next came the development of surface mount parts which were smaller than their thru-hole counterparts due to their lack of long leads, and eventually they became the dominant component package type used on circuit boards. The lack of thru-hole pins in surface mount parts, however, forced the development of a new method of soldering in order to hold them in place on the board until the soldering was complete. This new process is known as solder reflow, and it doesn’t use the standard pool of molten solder that the wave process uses. Instead, a sticky solder paste is used to hold the parts in place and solder them as well. Solder paste is a combination of a powder made up of metal solder particles and sticky flux that has the consistency of putty. The flux not only does its usual job of cleaning the soldering surfaces of impurities and oxidation, but it also provides a temporary adhesive that holds the surface mount components in place. The solder powder used in the paste can vary in its chemical composition with different material types and percentages used depending on the needs of the board being soldered. For instance, solder paste is available in both lead and lead-free versions to satisfy the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive. Solder paste is also classified by the size of the metal particles that make up the solder powder. These particles must be spherical in shape and can vary in size according to the type standards specified in IPC J-STD 005.Wanna know PCB knowledge? 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PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/20/2023 14:08
What Is the Process of Bare PCB Manufacturing?
It is important you test a blank PCB board before using it for the manufacturing of a PCB. This bare board needs to be tested to verify its functionality. As a bare board manufacturer, you can’t guarantee the functionality of your board without testing it. It is wrong to start mounting components on a bare board without conducting proper tests. Manufacturers can risk having dead boards if they fail to test their bare PCBs. Earlier detection of any defects will save you a lot. So, what is Bare PCB testing? Bare PCB testing involves verifying the continuity and isolation of the electrical connections on a bare board. Do you know bare PCB manufacturing? If you are looking for more information about bare PCB, please check and read the content below in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the basic definition of bare PCB? A bare PCB is a blank board designed for the production of a printed circuit board. This board comprises a metal coating, substrate, and conductive pathways. Bare PCBs boards are available so that engineers can mount electrical components. These boards feature no electrical components. As printed circuit boards are a core material in electronics devices, so is a bare board to a PCB. A bare board helps the production of several types of PCB. Circuit board manufacturers can’t do anything without this board. A bare PCB is also known as a blank PCB board. Manufacturers mount all electronic components on this board. The bare PCB board provides electrical and mechanical support for circuit production. What are the advantages of bare PCB? Bare Circuit Boards come with a number of advantages including: · Saving on Costs - This stand to reason since you are undertaking extensive testing in the initial stages of the design. What you do not have to contend with, therefore are Bare printed circuit boards that are wrongly assembled, which can turn out to be a very costly mistake.· Saving on time - Once again, since you are identifying issues in the early stages, you don’t tend to lose out on precious time. This can be a huge source of competitive advantage, since this could mean quick time-to-market.· Easy Resolution - With bare board testing it will be easy to identify and resolve issues early on.· Reliability - The most important advantage of bare board testing is the reliability that it offers. At a time of miniaturization, boards are extremely densely populated. It is, therefore, important to ensure that your bare board (PCB) is up to soldering the expensive components on it. Our bare board testing is done vide the Flying Probe Method that works well even for small production volumes and offers affordability as well as flexibility. What Is the Process of Bare PCB Manufacturing? DrillingDrilling involves the creation of holes for via connections. Here, the foundation for vias is created. This is an important process for the fabrication of bare PCB. The blank PCB drilling process requires serious attention. This is because any error can lead to losses. Hole MetallizationThe already drilled blank PCB boards go through a conveyorized line. Then, the holes are lined with a thin layer of carbon which serves as the cathode. Photo MechThis stage involves laminating the drilled bare PCB with photosensitive film plating resist. A direct imaging machine then images the board. PlatingThe manufacturer copper plates the bare printed circuit board. The technique used here is known as periodic pulsed plating. It involves plating copper evenly down small holes and on the tracks’ surface. Manufacturers must take measures to ensure the right amount of copper is in each panel. EtchingThis stage involves the removal of the unwanted copper from the bare PCB board. The manufacturer dips the board in an etching solution to remove the unwanted copper. The etching solution comprises ferric chloride. It is important to pay attention to this process to avoid over or under etching. Solder mask applicationThe manufacturer applies a solder mask to the two sides of the bare printed circuit board. This will help protect the copper surface. In addition, it will prevent solder-shorting of components in the process of board assembly. Solder mask prevents the disconnection of traces. Screen printingIn this stage, the manufacturer presses some ink on a mesh screen. This is one of the final stages in the bare PCB board fabrication. Screen printing helps to specify important information on the bare PCB. It is used to identify parts, logos, and marks on the bare board. FinishingThis involves using electroless nickel immersion gold or silver for exposed copper pads. It is equally important to verify the coating thickness with an X-ray fluorescence instrument. What are the applications of bare PCB? · High quality PCBs find applications across industries from consumer electronics to industrial applications, medical devices, automotive application & more.· Bare board PCB testing also finds ubiquitous use as it can improve the PCB design process.· It is extremely helpful in early stages of development as it streamlines many aspects of production, besides leading to savings in cost & time.· With Printed circuit boards, being smaller and densely populated, its importance is only slated to grow as it is getting more and more challenging to keep track of the traces, vias, through holes and more.· With bare boards, you tend to save time and money on costly errors, repairs and maintenance.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 11/17/2023 15:00
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