How to Prevent Solder Balls with 7 effective tips?
Solder balls are some of the most common PCB manufacturing defects. Solder balls after SMT reflow soldering are almost a common defect that occurs in the printed circuit board (PCB) assembly process. Several tinny balls surrounded along with the peripheral edge of the flux residue after reflowing is known as solder balls. In this article, follow us and get into the professional knowledge about solder balls. If you are curious about the methods of preventing the solder balls, please check and read the content to learn more information about it.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main reasons of solder balls? · Environment: The air humidity in the workshop is too high· People: tin remains during repair; tin beads are brought into the repair area; the steel plate is not clean by manual testing; the solder paste is not sufficiently stirred· Material: PCB is damp; solder paste metal content; solder paste particles are small and oxidized· Method: The amount of tin at the bottom of the component welding terminal is too large; the thickness of the steel mesh is too thick and collapses; the solder paste is turned on and the use time is not properly controlled, which absorbs water· Machine: The temperature rise slope of the reflow soldering is too high; the pressure during mounting is too high; the printing wipe is not clean; the printing squeegee pressure is too high How to Prevent Solder Balls with 7 effective tips?1. Open the steel mesh There is a lot of tin at the bottom of the component solder terminal, and it is squeezed on the solder mask after mounting to form a solder ball. What are the preventive measures: the steel mesh opens the anti-tin bead hole to improve and reduce the amount of tin2. Avoid the moisture of PCB PCB can retain moisture for some causes. Sometimes, storage in humid conditions causes water retention. At other times, the preheat temperature is not hot enough. As a result, the flux doesn't dry properly. To avoid the problems, store PCB in dry conditions. Take care so that moisture and water don't damage the PCB. Also, bake the PCB at 120 C for at least 4 hours before SMT manufacturing. The thickness of the PCB hole is also necessary. It should be enough to prevent the trapping of water.3. Process PCB aging control The PCB board is exposed to the air for too long 8-12H to absorb moisture and damp, which causes the moisture in the board to splash and form tin balls during reflow soldering. What are the preventive measures: increase the aging control 4H of the PCB board after opening to avoid moisture.4. Process the solder paste aging control When the solder paste is opened, there is a temperature difference between the solder paste temperature (0-10℃) and the ambient temperature (23±3℃), which can easily absorb moisture. When the solder paste is used, it is exposed to the air for too long for 8-12H to absorb moisture; it causes the moisture in the solder paste to be heated and splashed to form solder balls during reflow The solder paste is taken out from the refrigerator to 4H before opening, so that the temperature is consistent with the ambient temperature. During the use of tin green, follow the principle of small amounts and multiple times (addition in 1-2 hours).5. Pay attention to the missing solder mask It is the simplest mistake in SMT manufacturing. The absence of a solder mask between adjacent pads can lead to solder balls. Any manufacturer will not want that! The solution to this simple problem is also straightforward. You need to apply the solder paste properly on the PCB. Make sure you don't miss out on areas like spaces between pads. Using quality equipment can reduce the chances of this problem. It would help if you also used a slow preheat temperature rate. That will help spread the solder paste evenly on the PCB surface. It reduces the likelihood of creating gaps.6. Mention the proper pad spacing Proper pad placement is crucial for SMT manufacturing success. Otherwise, it can lead to the failure of your project. Additionally, you also have the risks of solder balls. The solder balls can cause shorts or even fall off. For this reason, proper placing of pads is essential. You need to adopt caution during the design phase. Design the pads in a way to maintain the required gaps between one another. Using a PCB designing solution makes the job easier. The stencil opening should also match the PCB design.7. Avoid stencil dimensions issues It would help if you used the right stencil for SMT manufacturing. The thickness of the stencil is of utmost importance. Stencils that are too thick can hamper soldering. It will also lead to the formation of solder balls. It would help if you chose the right stencil thickness. Consider your SMDs to select the right stencil width. Don't go for stencils that are too thick. Use relatively thin stencils. Additionally, keep an eye on stencil opening ratios and shapes. Any discrepancy here can result in solder balls.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/17/2021 09:44
How to Make LED PCB: 5 Tips of LED PCB Assembly
LED is an acronym for light emitting diode, which is semiconductor diodes. The LED is soldered to the printed circuit board and features a chip that creates the light as electrically connected. In general, the aluminum PCB contains a thin layer pf thermally conductive dielectric material that can transfer and dissipate the heat with much greater efficiency than a traditional rigid PCB. Like other semiconductor devices, PCB is the best method to electrically connect the LED components. And a PCB with LED components soldered is usually called as “LED PCB”. In this passage, we will provide you everything about the LED PCB assembly, if you are interested in LED PCB please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 tips of LED PCB assembly?1. Knowing the types of aluminum in LED PCB assembly The aluminum base is usually the most common LED PCB. They show effective results and offer high performance. The conductive link between the Heat Sink and the IC is basically the thermally conductive dielectric layer of the aluminum base. Since there are different types of aluminum available serving different purposes, thus it is possible to have more specialized LED Printed Circuit boards. Below, we are going to shed some light on different types of Aluminum. · Types of Aluminum· Flexible Aluminum· Hybrid Aluminum· Multi-Layer Aluminum2. Get into the design rules of LED PCB For an LED PCB, you need to cater to two main aspects of the design. First, it is important to ensure that the LED sits within the circuit board’s drilled holes. Ensure that the holes are part of the design. Second, you need to focus on the distance between the holes. You need to save the file in the industry Standard format of the Printed Circuit Boards i.e. the Gerber File. Ensure that the Gerber files have the required number of layers. Each layer will be showing different aspects of the Printed Circuit Board. After you have the Gerber file, you need to create a text file that contains information regarding the layer content as well as the board dimensions. Pay close heed to the required voltage and ensure that the LED has the ability to withstand the power supply that you need to your Printed Circuit Boards.3. Avoid defects during LED PCB assembly The LED PCB assembly may suffer from gradual performance degradation, and it is challenging to identify its root cause. Your custom LED PCB may be subject to trace degradation, oxidation, incorrect copper weight, condensation, and solder flux corrosion. If you inconsistently apply solder paste, it can lead to short or open circuits in the LED PCB. If you use it in limited quantity, the solder joints will be more prone to rupture. If you haphazardly use it in excess, it may connect with the nearby connections and cause short circuits. In this case, you will burn not only the LED but also the sensitive nearby electrical components. You should make sure that the LED PCB does not get environmental contamination. Furthermore, you may also use electrical testing to find the location of the short and open circuits.4. Knowing the applications of LED PCB PCB LED lights have excellent energy efficiency, low cost and maximum design flexibility, so it can incorporated into numerous lighting applications. ComputerLED displays and indicators are more and more popular in the computer applications. And aluminum PCB LEDs are an ideal solution because of the heat sensitivity of computer machinery. Expect for LED applications, aluminum PCBs are also used for the computer parts. MedicalLighting tools used in surgeries and medical examinations commonly use high-powered LED lights, and these LED lights often use aluminum PCBs, which is primarily because of the durability and heat transfer capabilities of aluminum PCB LEDs. Expect for lighting tools, medical scanning technology often uses aluminum PCBs as well. AutomotiveAluminum PCB LEDs also are used for cars on indicators, brake lights and in headlights, as well as other applications. There are some factors making the aluminum PCBs be ideal within the automotive industry, such as the durability and competitive prices.5. Pay attention to the thermal issues during LED PCB assembly LEDs, diodes, and other electronic components in the LED PCB may produce heat while functioning. If they provide extreme hear, it can damage them or affect their performance. There must be some supplemental cooling to maintain their temperature within their safe, defined limits. One way is to use a heat sink in your LED PCB design. It will prevent overheating of any electronic devices. Heat sinks are optimized and designed to allow the electronic components to operate within the safe limits.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/17/2021 09:28
7 PCB Manufacturing Defects & How to Solve PCB Problem?
There are many challenges and defects during the whole PCB manufacturing process. PCB manufacturing defects and solutions being at the receiving end of a PCB failure can be annoying and dissatisfying. Understanding some of the common defects can help you perform some analysis and proffer solutions to ensure the quality and sustainability of cheap PCB. In this passage we will lead you to learn the PCB manufacturing defects and how to solve them. If you are going to get into the topic, please check and read the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main 7 PCB manufacturing defects and the solutions?1. Temperature & Moisture PCBs are affected by temperature, both in storage, and when they are installed in components. Extreme temperatures or large temperature fluctuations may cause components or joints to break or fail. Many people take the maximum or minimum safe temperature into consideration, without thinking about the fluctuations in temperature that may occur either during operation or in storage. Exposure to moisture, both during the manufacturing process and in storage, can cause shorts to occur and may lead to defects in components. Humidity in the air, as well as the moisture content in the solder can wreak havoc on printed circuit boards, causing corrosion.2. Plating Hole Defects Holes carry electricity from one side of the board to the other. Plating of the hole wall during manufacture. During this, If the copper deposition is incorrect, it will create plating voids, leaving gaps in the wall with no copper coating. It could happen due to air bubbles, contamination in the holes, contaminated materials, and other similar reasons. You can prevent this from happening by following the manufacturer’s direction and cleaning the equipment as instructed.3. Soldering Defects The bulk of printed circuit board defects can be traced back to a soldering issue. Soldering is a technical skill that becomes even more difficult when dealing with the extremely small components on a printed circuit board. Some of the most common soldering defects include: Open joints, sometimes called “dry joints,” occur when the solder doesn’t bond correctly with the point of contact, typically the pad. Occasionally, open joints are caused by using too much solder, which causes the component to lift. Shifts occur when the printed circuit board or component is not aligned correctly during the soldering process. Shifts can result in open joints, shorts, and crossed signal lines. Short circuits, often referred to simply as “shorts,” most often occur due to a soldering error called solder bridging.4. Lack of Solder Mask It is a common problem that accompanies PCB manufacturing at home or production PCB manufacturing. The error is small, therefore challenging to identify. If these shorts go undetected, they can damage the complete assembly by burning up the components. One standard solution is adding a solder mask between pads, so there is no gap between the stencil and PCB.5. Electrostatic Discharge Defects Defects caused by electrostatic discharge can be extremely frustrating, since they are not always easy to detect. Latent failures caused by electrostatic discharge, or ESD, can cause significant cost increases due to the return or repair of the damaged unit. Electrostatic discharge can even cause shorts to occur by creating enough heat to soften solder. Electrostatic discharge is caused by both human and machines, and can happen during nearly every point in the manufacturing and assembly processes.6. Substrate Size Defects The change in size of substrate weft/warp is difference in direction. This occurs because of not paying any attention to the direction of fiber which is resulting in residual stress inside the board’s base, when released its direct impact is on the shrinkage of size of substrate.The best possible solution to this problem is determining the change rule of direction of weft/warp as per the compensation of shrinkage of the film. Trim it at same time as per the direction of processing of fiber.7. Copper Foil Etching Defects Sometimes a part of the substrate’ copper foil is etched away due to the restrictions because of changing the substrate for producing dimensional changes when stress is relieved.The best solution for the problem is during the process of designing the circuit board, it must be tried to make the board in even distribution. If this is not possible, then some space for transition must be left which would not affect the circuit. This is due to the reason that plank structure of the cloth of glass and density difference of weft is leading to the differences in intensity of longitude to latitude of plank.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/16/2021 09:32
5 Best Solder Tip for PCB - How to Do PCB Soldering?
PCB soldering is another term for the process of soldering electrical circuit boards. This type of soldering is one of the most basic techniques that anyone wishing to work with electronics and electrical circuits must learn. While there are many different ways you can complete the soldering process, the most basic explanation of the soldering process is that it’s a way of joining two small pieces together on the surface of the PCB, which stands for PCB. In other words, soldering is a way of connecting two or more different electrical components on your circuit board. In this passage, we will focus on the best solder on PCB, if you are going to learn the knowledge of it, please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the different technologies of PCB soldering? Soft Soldering Soft soldering is a process used for attaching small components onto the larger PCB. These small components will usually have a low-liquefying temperature that will begin to break down under the high temperatures of the heat source. Rather than simply melting the component, however, an additional step must be used to attach the component to the board. In this case, this extra step is a filler metal, which is typically a tin-lead alloy. Hard Soldering Hard soldering is a process that uses a solid solder to join two different metal elements together by spreading throughout the holes of the components that become unlocked as they’re exposed to high temperatures. As a process, hard soldering is made up of two smaller sub-processes known as silver soldering and brazing. What are the 7 tips of processing best PCB solder?1. What is the difficulty of best PCB soldering? Here’s the problem: Training focuses on the desired appearance of solder rather than how the connection is achieved. And “acceptable” appearance may hide failures in waiting. How the connection was made determines not only whether the solder connection itself is reliable but whether catastrophic damage was inflicted on the component being soldered. At soldering iron temperature, solder will stick to oxides and contaminants to produce a visually acceptable connection.2. What are the PCB soldering defects? The ban on lead in electronics changed our business profoundly by eliminating tin/lead component surfaces. Meanwhile, tin plating has become increasingly uncommon because of concerns about tin whiskers with pure tin. The new component surfaces are not tin or tin/lead; they are metals with higher melting temperatures that do not reflow during application of the solder. In other words, these are metals that are soldered, not reflowed. And the surfaces must be thoroughly deoxidized before solder is applied.3. How to avoid soldering bridge? A solder bridge is formed when two points on the circuit board that should not be electrically connected are inadvertently connected by solder during PCB soldering. This will form an electrical short circuit, which may cause various damages, depending on the circuit structure. A solder bridge can be fixed by holding your solder iron in the middle of the bridge to melt the solder, and drawing it through to break the bridge. If the solder bridge is too large, excess solder can be removed a solder sucker.4. What is the diameter of PCB best soldering? The gauge number determines the diameter of the solder. A gauge number is a unit of thickness for metal sheets and wires. For amateur and hobbyists, gauge numbers 18, 20, and 21 are the numbers that work well. The diameters of these numbers are 1.22, 0.914, and 0.813 mm, respectively. Staying in this range is a good idea for amateurs and beginners. Using wires of this diameter reduces solder wastage.5. How to base on chemical contents of PCB best soldering? Using these materials enables you to personalize the solder based upon your requirements. There are only three primary categories of solders to which you can narrow your search. · Lead solders were, for a long time, the go-to substance in the electronics industry. The most commonly existing blend is the 60/40 (tin/lead) blend. Tin helps maintain a lower melting point. · Lead-free solders have started gaining popularity. The primary reason is the fact that the EU restricted the use of lead in electronics. In countries like the US, manufacturers receive tax relief for using lead-free solders. · Flux core solder, sold as a single reel, consists of a reducing agent at the core. During the process of soldering, the flux gets released. This flux reduces the metal at the point of contact, which results in a cleaner and neater connection.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/16/2021 09:22
5 Challenges of Etching PCB Boards at Home
There are many advantages of etching your own circuit boards at home. You could get prototype PCB quickly after etching and it’s also convenient. Copper is removed from the board except at the places where wired connections are present. The advantages include de-cluttering of the system and ease of seeing the connections and an increase in usability and portability. In this passage, we will tell you everything about the DIY PCB etching. You can find all the knowledge of etching PCB at home. If you are curious about this topic, please check and read the passage we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why is etching PCB at home difficult？ To hand make a PCB, an engineer must first build the PCB and etch out the copper traces. Best practices dictate copper traces be etched by submerging the PCB into a fluid compound of ferric chloride to dissolve the top layer of photoresist and reveal the traces beneath. Moreover, these traces must be equally exposed across every PCB build to prevent stray variables from sparking an error or malfunction. In addition, as etchant becomes saturates with copper it becomes increasingly ineffective, which makes consistent etching by hand even more difficult. What are the considerations for etching PCB at home? You can etch a PCB by yourself, in a lab or even at home, through a simple and inexpensive production process. It makes sense when you wish to produce a single or a very small number of boards and want to avoid manufacturing costs. The etching process is therefore effective for a small workshop. There are however some issues to consider: 1. There is a risk of injuries due to the chemicals involved. 2. The quality of the results depends on several factors which you won't be able to master completely the first time. This can be somewhat compensated by using good machinery. 3. There is the problem of waste disposal. Toxic chemicals require a proper disposal service.To learn how to etch a PCB, make sure that your Fritzing PCB design is complete and exported as an etchable PDF or SVG, then follow these instructions. What are the 5 challenges during the etching PCB at home? 1. The PCB application could not be determined Etching printed circuit boards are highly related to the function or the role of the PCB. Engraving gets rid of excess copper to reveal the predetermined desired circuit pattern. There are several PCB etching processes that designers use. You choose all of these depending on the function of the PCB. Unfortunately, though, plenty of PCB enthusiasts don’t understand that etching a PCB is related to the purpose of the PCB. To ensure the quality of your PCB, DIY at home is difficult to guarantee. 2. We don’t have professional equipment to process During the PCB etching process, it is necessary to prepare kinds of professional equipment. Unfortunately, a majority of DIY PCB enthusiasts lack the professional equipment necessary for carrying out PCB etching on their own. For example, if you don’t have rubber gloves, your hand may end up getting strained. Therefore, having the right equipment is essential to etch a PCB that will function as desired. 3. It’s difficult to control the etching time During the etching process, there is a need for several chemicals when creating the proposed layout. Copper etching a PCB requires reagents such as Ferric Chloride and Ammonium. Besides, if you want to ensure that the etching process runs smoothly, you must control the etching reagent at specific temperatures in certain time. 4. The process is too complex to control It is a highly complicated process that, when done wrong, may lead to the production of ineffective printed circuit boards. Since etching PCB is not an easy process, as you may imagine. Do you have the necessary tools and chemical reagents essential for etching your printed circuit boards? How do you specify the thickness of your PCB when making it by yourself? You may need to seek a professional's services for assistance. 5. The PCB coating will be destroyed Professional PCB makers understand how to develop glossy PCB surfaces that come with plenty of benefits. The most significant difference between a gloss finish on a PCB and a matte finish is more aesthetically. By hiring a professional, you’ll be in a better position of being provided with a PCB containing a high-quality gloss finish. However, by etching PCB at home, you’ll lose the gloss of your PCB's coatings. Conclusion As explained above, apparently making PCB at home looks pretty simple, and it is just a matter of a few hours to create outstanding professional grade PCBs using ready to made DIY materials from the market. That said, the process may require some caution and precision for achieving the desired results, so that the intended circuit project is accomplished successfully.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/16/2021 09:14
7 Advantages of ENIG PCB Finish to Guarantee the Quality
The ENIG is a common acronym that stands for Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold. As the hot air solder leveling, it is also a surface finish of the printed circuit board industry. The ENIG got its name because it comprises electroless nickel plating, which is coated with a slim layer of immersion gold. Continuously, it has secured market share resulting from its ability to be flexible in various component assembly processes. In this article, we will tell you all the advantages of ENIG of the PCB manufacturing process. If you are going to learn the professional knowledge of ENIG, please check and read the content we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the process of ENIG in PCB manufacturing? ENIG process or PCB immersion gold is one of the most straightforward means to undertake. In this process, the vias and surfaces that are intended for the final finish/production first have a nickel layer that’s applied to the copper through an electroless process as a means of creating a diffusion barrier. In the second step, there’s the application of a fragile gold finish. The gold prevents nickel from oxidation while significantly determining the solderability of the surface. When should I use ENIG technology? There are plenty of reasons why you may need to use ENIG technology over other forms of surface finish technology that you may have at your disposal. For instance, if you want to use ENIG technology, you will have printed circuit boards that have a long shelf life. Additionally, if you are going to have hassle-free solderability, you may find it necessary to use ENIG technology instead of other forms of technology available for you. ENIG technology also comes with the promise of less oxidation, low contact resistance, high strength, and antifriction. With ENIG technology, the printed circuit board’s surface becomes easy to treat, not forgetting that this technology provides excellent plating around the holes in the PCB. What are the main 7 advantages of ENIG in PCB manufacturing?1. Flat Surface The ability to perfectly fit into flat surfaces is another advantage associated with ENIG. ENIG plating is lately turning out and becoming a popular surface finish preferred by many PCB manufacturers. ENIG consists of a double layer metallic coating consisting of nickel that acts both as a surface and a barrier to which designers can solder the components.2. Easy to soldering Based on different crystal structure those get formed by both Gold plating and ENIG. Additionally, welding ENIG does not bring about welding defects based on the fact that ENIG is a bit softer than Gold plating. It is easy to control the stress in immersion gold as opposed to Gold plating.3. Widely applications Unlike other types of solutions that may fail to function as desired across several electronic products, something good about ENIG PCB is that it can perfectly fit across various electronic products with much ease. Last but not least, another notable advantage associated with ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold) surface coating is that it finds much use in a variety of electronic products from computer motherboards to wearables, and medical appliances, among others.4. Non-require electroplating ENIG is best known for being corrosion-resistant, and a common type of plating commonly used when it comes to the manufacture of printed circuit boards. As mentioned earlier, ENIG consists of a gold layer on top of a nickel layer.5. Lead-free Another significant advantage associated with immersion gold or ENIG is that it is lead-free, meaning that manufacturers are not exposed to harmful chemicals when using it as a surface finish on PCBs. Since regular exposure to high lead levels may bring about several complications such as brain and kidney damage and body weakness.6. Long guarantee period The reason is that such finishes come with the promise of a long shelf life that lasts up to 12 months or more. The type of finish used in the manufacture of a printed circuit board determines the shelf life of aboard in months. Depending on the type of finish used, a printed circuit board will last 6, 12, or even more than a year. Unlike other surface finishes used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, most printed circuit board manufacturers mainly prefer to use ENIG PCB finishes.7. Good oxidation resistance ENIG surface plating consists of electroless nickel plating covered with thin layers of immersion gold that protect the nickel from any oxidation. Experienced and high-quality printed circuit board manufacturers in the market for PCB surface finishes always look for surface finishes resistant to oxidation. Another significant advantage associated with ENIG surface finish is that such a finish offers excellent oxidation resistance, unlike other surface finishes.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/15/2021 10:06
PCB Q&A: How to Prototype PCB with Professional Suggestion?
We need to start making PCB prototypes, but what is the true meaning of prototypes? There are many questions you may ask to know the methods of PCB prototyping. When should the prototype design begin? What is the best way to prototype your idea? As a PCB maker, how do we provide PCB prototyping? In this passage, we will solve all the problems of the PCB prototyping. If you are curious about it, please check and read the content below we prepare for more professional knowledge. Let’s go for the common Q&A!If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the common questions of PCB prototyping? How to improve the product you want to create? Prototyping is one of the sure ways to increase the quality of the product you want to create. Use your PCB prototype to check for your PCB-based product's functionality before proceeding to large-scale manufacturing of the product. It permits you to detect fault early during the development process and before you are invested an excessive amount of time and money into a flawed design. Quality PCB prototypes provide an explicit illustration of how your final product will perform. This way, you can assess if the product will meet your needs or not. What are the certifications that the prototype PCB manufacturer has? It’s good to take a PCB manufacturer’s pricing into account. After all, you are a business owner and you want to be sure that you are getting the best deal possible for the sake of your budget. However, don’t allow discounted prices to cloud your judgment when it comes to choosing the PCB manufacturer for you. Instead of focusing on the price of the manufacturer’s services, make certain that the certifications that the manufacturer has correspond with your business’ needs and that the manufacturer complies with all industry standards. Finding the best PCB manufacturer for your business’ needs doesn’t have to be challenging. If you keep these questions in mind while searching for the best PCB manufacturer for you, you can be sure to find efficient and effective services that will benefit your company in the long run. How to select PCB core material? The core or substrate of your PCB is the non-conductive base and provides strength to the entire board. You can use different types of materials for your PCB with their advantages and disadvantages. You should choose your material based on the result you need, application, environmental and other factors applicable to the PCB. The material used for the core determines the performance and level of integration of the PCB. The material should be durable enough and provide regular performance. It would help if you also considered other thermal, electrical and physical factors such as flexibility, temperature resistance, dielectric constant, tensile strength, dielectric strength, adhesion, and so on. Here are the most commonly used materials for a PCB: FR-4It is by far the most common material used for cores of PCBs. The epoxy laminate sheet is reinforced with glass to provide extra strength. PTFE (Teflon)PTFE is ideal for high-frequency and high-speed applications as the plastic material offer no resistance. You can also use it for equipment with tight tolerances because of its flexibility. MetalSome applications require the use of metals such as iron, aluminum, and copper. The material is ideal for Surface Mount Technology (SMT) and comes with mechanical durability. How Can You ensure proper functionality of PCB? Many tests need to be carried out to ensure the functionality of the PCB. The significant tests are isolation and circuit continuity tests and determine the quality of the manufacturing process. The circuit continuity test looks for any disconnection in the circuit, while the isolation test is done to determine any shorts. You can also perform other tests like the “bed of nails” test by attaching springs to the test points. Then 200g of pressure is applied to them to test the durability of the test points. What kind of testing do you do before shipment? It’s important that your PCB manufacturer is committed to “doing it right the first time.” That means that they will test all products 100% before shipping them to you. If they don’t, you can end up with sub-par product quality and that is going to hurt your own productivity and efficiency. By choosing a manufacturer that is 100% committed to quality, you will always know what you’re getting before you receive it.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/15/2021 09:53
7 Common PCB Design Mistakes in PCB Design Process
As an important process of the whole PCB manufacturing process, PCB design plays a pretty essential role to guarantee the quality and performance of the finished boards. Nut there are still lots of challenges during the PCB design process. Independent design reviews are one of the best ways to prevent costly errors such as the ones listed below. In this passage we will provide you everything about common PCB design mistakes, and if you are curious about the topic, please check the content below to learn more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 7 common PCB design mistakes？1. Errors in landing patterns PCB design software packages provide libraries of electronic components. These libraries include the schematic symbol and PCB landing pattern for each component. You won’t usually have problems if you stick to these components in your design. However, if you use components outside of these libraries then you must manually draw the schematic symbol and the PCB landing pattern. It’s easy to make mistakes especially on the landing pattern. For instance, if the pad to pad spacing is off by as little as a fraction of a millimeter, the pins won’t align properly making soldering difficult or impossible.2. Flexible circuit conductors arrangement Conductors' arrangements are crucial distinguishing factors that differentiate the design process involved with a rigid and flexible course. Unlike wooden boards, flexible circuits can twist, turn, and bend. If the conductor arrangement is incorrect, it can lead to hazardous consequences, especially during board flexing. Be cautious when you design the conductors' arrangement. One way to minimize the conductors' stress during flexing is to make sure they pass through curved areas.3. Blind/buried vias used or non-manufacturable Even if you only want to connect a trace from layer one to layer two, all other layers have the via too. The problem with this is it can increase the size of the PCB, because the via reduces routing space on every layer. A blind via connects an external layer to an internal layer and a buried via connects two internal layers. However, it’s not that simple. Blind and buried vias have severe limitations based on how the layers stack up on the board. They also drastically increase prototyping costs so I don’t recommend them for most applications.4. Sub-optimal wireless antenna layout Layout of an antenna for wireless functionality is critical. For maximum power transfer between transceiver and antenna, must have matched impedance. Consequently, There is proper micro-strip connecting the antenna and the transceiver. A microstrip is a type of transmission line fabricated on a PCB for carrying microwaves (high frequency radio waves). This is a conducting strip separated from a ground plane by a dielectric layer. Generally, the microstrip needs to be designed with a 50 ohm impedance for maximum power transfer with the antenna.5. Insufficient power trace width If a PCB trace will have more than roughly about 500mA flowing through it then the minimum width allowed for a trace probably won’t be enough. The required width of a trace depends on · Internal or external layer· Thickness or weight of the copper foil For the same thickness, an external layer can carry more current for the same width than an internal trace (external traces have more air flow enabling better heat dissipation). Then when calculating the current carrying capability of a PCB trace you must also specify the permissible temperature rise for that trace. Generally a 10C rise is a safe choice, but if you need to squeeze down the trace width more you can use a 20C or higher allowed temperature rise.6. Wrong position of the decoupling capacitors Decoupling capacitors are required on the PCB power supply lines to ensure a stable power supply free from transients or oscillations to all board components. It is absolutely necessary that these capacitors are always connected in parallel with the power supply and placed as close as possible to the pins of the components that require power. The power line coming from the power source must be properly routed on the PCB quote, in order to get to the decoupling capacitor before going to the pin that needs a stable voltage. Note that, otherwise, the decoupling function cannot work properly; in fact, all voltage regulators use a feedback circuit which can oscillate if not adequately stabilized.7. Minimizing Slithers Slithers are undissolved copper chunks that may stick to the circuit board during the chemical etching process. These slither may cause short circuits and several other manufacturing failures. A PCB designer should always ensure that the minimum copper width is above the manufacturer’s requirement. This helps to minimize slithers, and produce properly working for circuit boards.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/15/2021 09:26
How to Do PCB Design with 5 Tips of High Quality PCB Design?
Accurate PCBs are essential for the optimal performance of devices. Checking your quality PCB design is as essential as the design itself. The PCBs hold the ICs and other components and implement the interconnections between them. PCBs are created in abundance for portable electronics, computers, and entertainment equipment. They are also made for test equipment, manufacturing, and spacecraft. How to design high-quality PCB? If you are curious about the topic, please check and read the content below for more professional knowledge below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 tips of high-quality PCB design?1. Inspect Traces in your PCB Design Traces are wire conductors responsible for current flow from one component to another. In your PCB- the solder masks cover up the particles. A good practice to reduce errors is color-coding the masks. Traces of only the top and bottom layers of your PCB designs are visible. The usual solder mask color is green- although other colors are also available. White is difficult to notice. Errors due to Trace misplacement are common. The usual golden rule is- Keep the trace connections as clean as possible. Traces with sharp bends can be problematic for higher power or frequency transmission. Try to avoid steep 90-degree angles. There are exceptions to this general rule too. PCBs with square concentric spirals are a perfect example. We can find these characteristics of high-quality PCB.2. Pay attention to the schematic details Schematics control the project, so accuracy and completeness are critical for success. They include information that is necessary for the proper operation of the circuit. A schematic should include adequate design details, such as pin numbers, names, component values, and ratings. Embedded within each schematic symbol is the manufacturer part number used to determine price and specifications. The package specification determines the size of the footprint for each component. The first step should be to make sure the exposed copper for each pin is in the proper location and is slightly larger than the component pins (3 to 20 mils) depending on available area and soldering method.3. To process the component placement Component placement is next in the process and determined based on thermal management, function, and electrical noise considerations. A first-pass component placement step commences after the outline of component and interconnect position has been assigned. Immediately after the individual components are placed, a placement review should be held and adjustments made to facilitate routing and optimize performance. Placement and package sizes are often reconsidered and changes are made at this point based on size and cost. Components absorbing greater than 10 mW or conducting more than 10 mA should be considered powerful enough for additional thermal and electrical considerations. Sensitive signals should be shielded from noise sources with planes and be kept impedance-controlled. 4. Follow the PCB trace length standards Analyze the length of your PCB traces. For time-specific functions dependent on many signals- this is critical. High-speed clock signals, data, and address bus lines use these relative PCB functions. The bus lines connect the microprocessor with RAM. When checking the PCB quality, we should pay attention to： The length matching ensures signal transmission through the same delay period. The signals arrive at the same time- passing through delay lines. Knowledge of the PCB layout and schematics is essential. Learn which signal line needs delay lines- and by how much. Traces of only the top and bottom layers of your PCB designs are visible. The usual solder mask color is green- although other colors are also available. White is difficult to notice. Errors due to Trace misplacement are common. The usual golden rule is- Keep the trace connections as clean as possible. Traces with sharp bends can be problematic for higher power or frequency transmission.5. Deal with the decoupling capacitorsAll chips need power to function, but what happens when the power source is some distance away from the chip needing the power? In these cases, power has to be brought to the chip via a PCB trace (although typically via a PCB power plane on an inner layer). Decoupling capacitors are placed very close to the chip’s power pins in order to filter out any high-frequency noise from impacting the chip negatively. In general, if a chip has more than one VDD pin, then each such pin requires at least one decoupling capacitor, sometimes more. These decoupling capacitors should be physically placed very close to the pins they are supposed to decouple. If this doesn’t happen, their effect is greatly reduced. If your PCB design doesn’t have decoupling capacitors placed right next to the power pins on most of the microchips, then that is a big indicator that your design was not done properly.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/14/2021 09:44
5 PCB Assembly Problems & How to Solve Them?
PCBA is a very important step of the whole PCB manufacturing process. According to industry statistics, the top 3 PCB assembly defects which account for 74% of all manufacturing defects are Opens, Solder bridging, and Component shift. Minimization of all solder joint defects should be the goal for any SMT manufacturer. Through understanding the defect, its root causes, as well as how to prevent it, you can greatly improve the quality of all assemblies you manufacture. In this passage, we are providing the details of 5 PCB assembly problems and how to solve the problems. If you are going to learn the knowledge please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. 1. What is Plating Voids? – How to solve it? Plated through holes are important holes on the printed circuit board, as they carry electricity from one side of the board to the other side through the holes. The walls of these holes are electroplated during the PCB fabrication process. Before electroplating, the circuit board is made conductive from the top to bottom by copper deposition. In this process, the electroless copper is made to adhere to the edges of the circuit board and within the holes. The problems with copper deposition give rise to plating voids, which means the walls are not coated evenly with copper. These holes may affect the flow of electricity. Plating voids may be caused due to a variety of reasons such as material contamination, air bubbles in the material, contaminated holes, and so on. So, the defects caused due to air bubbles, contamination, and insufficient cleaning can be avoided by cleaning the material before drilling. Also, other defects can be avoided by following the directions provided by the manufacturer.2. What is Physical Damage? – How to solve it? Failure of PCB is linked to physical damage, which is caused due to environmental stresses or during the SMT manufacturing process. Most common cause of PCB failure is dropping a circuit board in a prototyping phase. The damage to the physical components or pieces is not easily visible, and they are not repairable either. Thus, there is no other option except replacing the PCB.3. What is Component shift? – How to solve it? The component shift means poor alignment of PCBs parts to their intended target. Components shifts are one of the most common manufacturing defects that PCB assemblers face. It mainly occurs during reflow as parts tend to shift and move on the molten hot solder. Some parts may end up misaligning themselves. It is because of tension that exists on the molten solder surface. Some other factors may also bring about a component shift. They include bent leads, massive convection rates, rapid vibrations in the conveyer, poor solder placement, and lopsided heat sinks on the components. But on the bright side, there are several ways that manufacturers can use to do away with cases of component shift when manufacturing their PCBs. It's advisable to ensure you maintain the right humidity. You should also ensure that you have the proper temperatures too. Also, manufacturers need to ensure the minimization of movement.4. What is Solder Joint? – How to solve it? Most of the solder the electronic industry uses today is of the lead-free variety, as use of lead has been recognized as a health hazard. Lead-free solder melts at a higher temperature, and has introduced a variety of challenges. Rush PCB has compiled a list of solder defects that can help managers, designers, engineers, and operatives recognize these everyday problems and allow them troubleshoot efficiently and effectively. The electronic industry uses the standard IPC 610D for the Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies. The standard offers criteria for lead-free soldering and has examples of typical process faults. The document is continually updated and will include more examples of lead-free soldering in the future.5. What is Pin and Connector Check? – How to solve it? Some essential components in a printed circuit board are pins and connectors. Pins/fasteners and connectors help in relaying signals during operation. Poor placement of the pins may bring costly damages to the connector. But to prevent such a case, it is vital to use a tool known as a pattern-matching to check the correct placement of the connectors. As a PCBA manufacturer, you can use this pattern-matching equipment to locate and group the patterns correctly. The pattern-matching tool is also ideal as it consists of a score indicating how much the patterns match the intended location or design. Better yet, to ensure proper pin alignment, you can go ahead and use telecentric lenses. A good reason for using telecentric lenses is due to its magnification that doesn't change. With such, manufacturers can prevent or do away with the problem of parallax error. The conventional lens can cause parallax errors. It becomes easier for manufacturers to avoid these defects by doing thorough checks of connectors and pins. Conclusion As a PCB user, it is frustrating receiving PCBs that functions, but only for a short time then fail. To a manufacturer, you'll end up spending much cash and waste even more time, especially in the event of recalls. Having a clear understanding helps you avoid the manufacture of low-quality boards. With high-quality boards, you'll enhance the reputation of your business. In the long run, it attracts more clients to partner with you.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/14/2021 09:32
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