Rogers PCB refers to any PCB produced by the Rogers Corporation. Hence, the Rogers Corporation ensures that the PCB comes from high-frequency PCB material. In case you don’t know, Rogers Corp is one of the world’s best tech firms. So, they are leaders in ground-breaking tech solutions. But most importantly, they produce quality high-frequency PCBs. Also, Rogers Corp is the industry’s best for advanced PCB components. Hence, they produce materials aimed at connecting our world, protecting, and helping power. After all, the company has been in existence for over 185 years. And at this time, they have focused on delivering critical solutions that meet their customers’ demands. Also, the company has its headquarters in Chandler, Arizona, USA. Rogers Corp produces their products in different countries. So, asides from the US, they are present in China, Korea, Japan, Hungary, Belgium, and Germany. In this passage we will focus on the detailed knowledge of Rogers PCB and please check the content we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What makes Rogers PCB stand out? Three things make Rogers Corp unique. And they are as follows: First, they commit to market-focused innovation. Second, the company leads in mission-critical situations. And lastly, they have a passion for offering fantastic value to their customers’ success. Plus, the firm offers a lot of products that help to solve issues in different sectors. So, it’s not a surprise that Rogers PCB comes with high-quality features. These features are temperature constancy and exceptional dielectric constant. But there’s more. Rogers PCB’s factor of thermal expansion of dielectric constant is quite unswerving with copper foil. Hence, you can use Roger PCB to boost the deficiency of the PTFE substrate. Also, it’s super suitable for high-frequency and high-speed circuits. Plus, it comes in handy for the application of RF and microwave devices. Furthermore, Roger PCBs have low water absorption. So, they are ideal for applications with high humidity. What are the types of Rogers PCB? Rogers PCB has various types with different resistance for harsh conditions. Plus, the Rogers PCB has two main categories. They are Thermostat and PTFE-based materials. So, we’re going to list the three major types. Laminates · Woven Glass Reinforced Modified Epoxy IMS· PTFE Ceramic· Ceramic/Woven Glass UL 94 V-0 laminates/Hydrocarbon· Cross-Plied Woven Glass-Reinforced PTFE· PTFE Random Glass Fiber· Woven Glass/Ceramic/Hydrocarbon· Woven Glass Reinforced Modified Epoxy Laminates· Filled PTFE Composite· Woven Glass Reinforced PTFE Antenna Grade Laminates Bonding Materials · Woven Glass / Prepreg / Hydrocarbon / Ceramic· Thermoset Thermally & Electrically Conductive Adhesive (TECA) Film· Ceramic PTFE Bondply Metal Claddings · Electrodeposited Reverse Treated· Resistive Foil· Electrodeposited· Rolled What are the Rogers PCB materials? RO3000 The Rogers RO300 series are high-frequency circuit materials and ceramic-filled PTFE composites. Hence, they come in handy for RF and commercial microwave applications. Also, the series of high-level laminates deliver stability. And the steadiness is both in electrical and mechanical characteristics. Regardless of its dielectric constant, the RO3000 series has consistent mechanical features. Hence, it enables engineers to produce multi-layer board designs. And these board designs use various dielectric stable materials for single layers. Also, they can’t encounter reliability or war-page problems. Furthermore, the dielectric constant of the RO3000 series is steady over high temperature. The Benefits of RO3000 Series · They are available in a DK range of (from 3.0 to 10.2).· They have the lowest loss of commercial laminates. RO4000 The Rogers RO4000 series are industry leaders for prepregs and hydrocarbon ceramic laminates. Thus, they are ideal for millimeter-wave and microwave frequencies. Plus, their materials are low-loss in nature. They are also ideal for circuit fabrication. Plus, this series also comes in handy in streamlined features over old PTFE materials. The Benefits of RO4000 Series · It has an above-average thermal conductivity (0.6 – 0.8).· The RO4000 series has low Z-Axis CTE, which is ideal for through-hole technology.· It has an outstanding RF/Microwave performance.· Optimized cost.· The series has a wide range of Dk (2.55 – 6.15).· It’s compatible with FR-4 production processes. What are the advantages of Rogers PCB? Compatible Rogers's PCBs are quite compatible with other substrates. And it’s because you can fabricate it as thin as 0.1mm. Consequently, you can use this PCB alongside other substrates like FR-4. Enhances Impedance Control The Rogers PCBs improve impedance control. In other words, this PCB can match the trace dimensions and locations with the substrate material properties. And it does this to maintain the impedance of a trace signal within a particular value (usually expressed in percentage). That way, the Rogers PCBs offer a regular high-frequency performance. It Has Good Thermal Management Most circuitry and electronic devices produce a lot of heat. So, it’s best to use Rogers PCB since it has good thermal management. That is, it balances the amount of heat input and output. As a result, it averts premature failure and boosts reliability. The PCB Has Low Moisture Absorption When a PCB has low moisture absorption, it means one thing. The PCB has dimensional stability. So, despite varying environmental conditions, it will maintain its size. And it also means that the Rogers PCB has a low thermal expansion. Roger PCB Has Low Outgassing for Space Applications Outgassing is an essential factor in the spacecraft industry. And it happens when a particular material has a vacuum of space. So, outgassing is a big problem that spacecraft engineers face. And it’s because it subjects their creations to excess temperature fluctuation. But, with Roger PCBs, engineers experience low outgassing.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 07/09/2021 18:45
A PCB kit is simply a collection of resources. You will need the funds if you want to make your PCB. You will have the required tools, accessories, equipment and items to make PCBs. As you know, you will need several tools to make a PCB. All of these tools make up the PCB kit, which you should always keep handy. Today, we will show you how to make a PCB toolkit. What you put in the tool is up to your choice. That means your PCB kit may differ from the bag of another person. There's no reason to fret over this as it's normal. You rest your worries if you have the minimum tools to make your PCB. After that, it's up to you what you want to include in your kit. You can either make your kit or purchase it from a store. In this passage, we will explore the tools that you must have in your PCB kit. You will be able to do the professional job in a breeze by the time you reach the end of the article.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the tools and material for PCB kit? There are some tools which you need to make a PCB. We will first take a look at those essential tools you need to have in your PCB kit. Tools in PCB Kit Mini drill: You will need to drill holes on your PCB to attach components. The tool is also useful for making vias to connect various layers of the board. Arrange a mini drill or Dremel and keep it in your PCB kit all the time. Flat iron: Arrange a flat-base laundry iron and store in your kit. It will come handy when you need to iron the PCB layout on the board. Make sure it also has a temperature control feature. You will need to manage the temperature depending on the thickness of the paper. Printer: You will need to arrange a laser printer or photocopying machine. You will use it to print the PCB layout on the paper. Don't make the mistake of using standard inkjet printers. The ink is soluble in water and won't stick to the article. Saw: You may need a saw to remove the excess PCB board portion. Soldering iron: You may have to use the soldering iron to fix components on your PCB. Also, keep some flux handy. Latex gloves: You should keep a pair of latex gloves in the PCB kit. The gloves provide protection and prevent injuries. Eye protection: Arrange a pair of goggles or eye protection. You don't want any chemical or toxic material going into your eyes while making PCBs. Materials to Arrange Now let's take a look at some of the materials you need in your PCB kit. Printing paper: You can keep three types of paper in your bag to print the PCB layout- ··Photo paper· Glossy paper· Magazine paper PCB board: This needs no explanation. You will use the board to make your PCB. Boards can be of various materials. So choose according to your preference. Copper: Copper is an essential item in your PCB kit. You will use it to make the traces on your PCB. Marker/Pen: You may need a fine tip permanent marker to draw the marks on your PCB by hand. Sandpaper: You will need sandpaper to remove the paper from your PCB. It is also useful for restoring and cleaning the board. Etching solution: You can use various etching solutions for your PCB. We recommend using Ferric Chloride. It's the most common and easy to get. Plastic container: You will need the container to hold your etching solution. Always use a plastic container and stay away from metal containers. Ruler: It is an optional item. You may need a ruler for measurements and determining trace widths. Plastic tweezers: This will help you hold your PCB while you clean or wash it. Never use metal tweezers as they may rust. Cutter/compass: You may need a sharp tip object to remove excess paper. Soap and brush: After etching, you may need to wash the board. Use a laundry soap and brush that you keep in your kit. Cleaning will expose the copper traces of the PCB. How to make PCB kit? By now, you know the tools and materials you need for your PCB kit. Next comes the question of how you make your kit. So here are a few ways to help you out- Look Around Your Home Most of the tools and materials you need might already exist in your home. For example, you may have tweezers, iron, sandpaper and other items lying in some part of the house. So conduct a thorough search and collect the things that you need in your PCB kit. Visit Your Local Store You can source all the tools and materials locally. Just visit your neighborhood electrical and hardware store. They are sure to stock the items as they are ubiquitous. You can also ask for a discount for buying items in bulk. Check Online Stores Various eCommerce platforms like Amazon and eBay also sell tools for PCB kits. You can Google 'buy PCB kit' and get a list of online stores selling the items you need. Before buying, ensure that the products and the seller have good reviews. Lookout for Readymade PCB Kits You will also be able to find readymade PCB kits. They contain the essential items you need to make a PCB. You can save money by buying a complete PCB kit instead of investing in separate pieces. Pro Tips· Make a list of items you want to include in your PCB kit· Compare prices of different stores to find the most affordable rates· Buy from reputed online sellersWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 07/08/2021 17:12
RF PCB design
RF stands for "radio frequency." It makes the PCBs a part of operating at a much higher frequency than standard PCBs, starting from 100 megahertz (MHz). It is a significant difference between RF PCBs and standard PCBs. The issues that surround RF PCB design will come back to this, as micromanaging high frequencies are integral to designing an RF PCB. In this passage, we will focus on the RF PCB design and tell you everything about it. If you are going to learn the professional knowledge, Come and check the content we prepare for you below. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the basic types of RF PCB design? The higher frequency of RF PCBs makes it more complicated in their creation and design. There are four factors to consider before developing a blueprint for designing an RF PCB. Some ConstantsThe first difference between RF and non-RF PCBs are the constants. Dielectric constants, for example, can be treated as a single value in non-RF applications. But because the frequency of an RF board is much higher, they should be treated as multiple values. Temperature controlDue to the higher frequency used in RF PCB, temperatures within the board can fluctuate. If the materials used to create the board are not appropriately placed, these fluctuations can get out of hand. Adjacent spacingThe most optimized RF PCBs contain four layers. Constructing a four-layer PCB means that individual components will need to be spaced together in a way where everything can work together correctly. Material selectionIt is creating a four-layer PCB that has consistent temperatures demands that you choose materials that will allow the least margin for error. Read to discover exactly what these materials are and how to use them. How to choose material for RF PCB? Choosing the right materials is the most crucial aspect when it comes to RF PCB design. Whether you want to use two layers or four layers, materials will make or break an RF PCB. There are three things to consider when choosing RF PCB materials. The coefficient of thermal expansionThis coefficient pertains to an object's size about temperature changes. Because RF PCBs deal with temperatures that are not only high but variable, this coefficient requires continuous use as a method of micromanaging temperature levels. Moisture absorptionMoisture must also be taken into account as water affects temperatures since moisture does affect temperatures. Moisture is directly related to the environment that the device utilizing the RF PCB operates in. Cost vs. Performance If this debate wasn't relevant enough when selecting non-RF PCBs, it is even more relevant when selecting materials for RF PCBs. The best thing to do is to know what your budget is to the penny, then aim to choose a cost-balanced material, electrical performance, and thermal robustness. What are the instructions of RF PCB design? Because so many things are at work when it comes to RF PCBs, the design layout will affect the stability and reliability of the final product. Everything in an RF PCB needs to come together, so there is not a lot of crowding, yet nothing is too far apart. These instructions will show you how to do this. Arrange RF traces firstRF traces carry the highest frequency of an RF board. These are arranged first because everything else will be placed around them. Another thing that must be done is to leave adequate space. It will allow smoother bends, and more importantly, it will isolate the RF signal. Isolating RF tracking is essential.After you have arranged the RF traces, you must now design your board such that the RF tracks are isolated. You can do this by stitching vias around the RF traces. It is essential because it is very likely that the RF board you are designing will be part of a device that utilizes high-speed signals, such as USB and HDMI ports. Isolating the tracks will prevent overheating when these signals are sent to and from the device. Keep battery inductance lowGround inductance is affected by two things in the RF chipset: Vias and through holes. Vias can accomplish the task of connecting ground pins to the ground plane. Arranging multiple through holes will also reduce the harmful effects of the ground plane, and this is important because battery inductance does not respond well to high frequencies.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 07/07/2021 17:21
PCB tenting vias
Do you know the difference between different tenting and plugging techniques? In this passage we will lead you to learn the professional knowledge about tenting vias. Please come and check the content we prepare for you.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the definition of tenting vias? Vias can be very negligible in size, but they are crucial parts of a printed circuit board (PCB). Vias are used to interconnect the copper traces present on different layers of a multi-layered PCB. You will never find any component lead passing through the hole of a via. There are different types of vias, and drilling holes on the PCB make all of them. A via may be tented or left exposed — a tenting of a via means that solder mask has been used to cover the via over the hole in the shape of a tent or a skin. Earlier, manufacturers had to face difficulty in tenting the vias as they used liquid photo-imageable (LPI) solder mask. But with the introduction of the dry film solder mask, the process has become much more comfortable. Tenting a PCB brings down the number of exposed conductive pads and reduces the chances of shorts arising from solder bridging. It also protects the vias from corrosion and external elements. When dealing with SMT pads, tenting is useful to lessen past migration from the SMD elements when the vias are designed at the end of places. Tenting is also ideal for vias located close to SMT pads, reducing the chances of short that occur during reflow. Sometimes, the tented via is again given a coat of solder mask. Why is PCB tending via important? Tenting vias of a printed circuit board is a common practice to protect printed circuit boards. It is often preferred over mask plugging or epoxy filling because of cost. The most cost-effective form of via tenting is LPI, or liquid photo imageable solder mask tenting. If you’re very concerned about the tenting coming loose and exposing the annular ring, you may choose to use a somewhat more expensive resin filling. The main goal of via tenting is to leave fewer exposed conductive pads on the surface of your printed circuit board. This should, in turn, mean fewer shorts brought about during solder bridging during assembly. Another benefit is a reduction of paste migration from SMT pads, which can occur when vias are drilled on standard BGA “dog-bone” patterns or when the vias are on the edges of SMT pads. Tenting will also help ensure that the via is less likely to be damaged by exposure to the elements. Tenting is usually more effective with smaller vias (diameter of 12 mil or less), so if you have larger vias that you need to protect, you may want to consider some kind of fill to close the via instead. Filling your vias will not usually significantly affect conductivity as electrical travel through the copper plating is unimpeded. What are the benefits of tending via? The foremost advantage that tenting vias offers is the protection offered by the solder mask. The tenting creates a barrier that ensures there aren’t any damages to the PCB layers. This is akin to how the solder mask prevents corrosion in the copper traces. Another advantage of the tenting method is also that the numbers of exposed conductive components are minimized. The exposure of these components can result in corrosion. Tenting also helps in significantly bringing down the possibility of a short on account of the solder bridging. With tenting, you can also rest assured that the paste migration from SMT pads is significantly reduced. The fact that tenting is a cost-effective method of protecting the vias is an added perk! LimitationsA major limitation of the tenting process is that with a liquid solder mask, there is always the possibility of breaking of LPI and creating small holes in the tent. In turn, these holes can trap moisture and corrosion can be the natural outcome. To overcome this limitation, it is important that the vias are left exposed in the prototype stage. That way, any issues can be identified and the traces can be fixed. With covered vias the opportunity to discover these issues is significantly limited. How to make the decision to tent via? Two major aspects go in to decide whether or not you should tent via. The first, of course is the PCB design and the second is the size of via. As a thumb rule, tenting works well with vias of smaller diameters of 12 mil or less. Any via that is above 12 mil in diameter does not lend itself to tenting. If you need to take care of large vias closing it with some kind of fill is a far better alternative. Tenting is also preferred on account of its lower cost as opposed to mask plugging or epoxy filling. In fact tenting via with a liquid photo-imageable solder mask turns out to be the most cost-effective. However where there are concerns about tenting being loose, epoxy filling is an alternative, even though it comes at a higher cost.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 07/07/2021 16:56
What is ceramic PCB？
Ceramic PCB contains a thermally transitive ceramic residue and a binder. The first point to remember is to prepare the heat transmission, organic ceramic boards, at a heat transmission of between 9 to 20W/m. With this in mind, we can define a ceramic PCB as a board containing ceramic base materials. In this passage we will talk about all the details about ceramic PCB, come and read the content we prepare.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the types of ceramic PCB？ Alumina- you can also call it A1203 or metal baseboard. It is a type of board with dielectric thermal properties and electrically insulated components between aluminum and copper substrates. It would be best to use Alumina ceramic boards for heat dissipation purposes and general temperature maintenance and regulation. Alumina assemblies consist of three primary layers: · The first one is a circuit layer containing copper of about 1-10 oz wide.· Secondly, there is an insulating layer consisting of a thermally transitive and electrically insulating substrate.· The third layer comprises copper aluminum material. AIN- you can also call it Aluminum Nitride. AIN is a modern commercial ceramic material. It contains elements that are reproducible and regulated for the past 20 years. AIN is an excellent alternative to alumina due to its dielectric capacities, less thermal expansion coefficient, and sound thermal transmission. Besides, it does not react with most semiconductor manufacturing chemicals. You can use AIN boards in heat sinks, microwaves, molten metal processing machines, electronic package substrates, insulators, and others. Why is ceramic PCB so popular? High Thermal ExpansionThe first reason why ceramic boards are so popular in the electronics sector is their excellent thermal coefficient expansion. It is good to note that the ceramic base heat transmission almost matches silicon and can act as a connection material. Besides, you can use it as an isolator. Therefore, there is maximum use for the thermal properties of ceramic boards, even in adverse conditions. StabilityThe application of ceramic brings a stable dielectric capacity, and you can modify the balance into a partial radiofrequency loss to increase your device's power. Still, despite the surface toughness, ceramic materials come with an inherent resistance against chemical erosion. Ceramic's chemical resistance can change to resistance against liquids and moisture. VersatilityYou can create several use cases to integrate a metal core board with a high thermal expansion. Besides, you can still turn the metal core into reliable conductors using the sintering technique. Therefore, the application of ceramic PCB is beneficial because of its high processing temperatures. DurabilityThe ceramic board fabrication process creates durability through the use of unique properties, such as toughness. That prevents your PCB from wear and tear. So you can be confident that you will not change your PCB soon because of its slow aging capacity. Also, the high thermal resistance of ceramic PCB makes it assume a decelerated decomposition process. AdaptabilityLastly, the use of metal cores can serve as inflexible carriers that offer mechanical stiffness. This property makes it easier to use ceramic PCBs in any state of matter because of the high resistance to corrosion and normal wear and tear. What are the classifications of ceramic PCB? High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (HTCC) PCB You can create high-temperature co-firing by concocting aluminum oxide, plasticizer, lubricant, and solvent. Then it would help if you perform roll forming, the curtain covering, and circuit tracing on refractory surfaces, such as tungsten. After that, cut and laminate your PCB, put it in a high-temperature oven of 16000C- 17000C, and bake for 32-48 hours. Remember to bake in a minimized gas, like hydrogen, to avoid oxidizing tungsten and molybdenum. You can use ceramic circuit boards produced under high-temperature co-firing on small-scale PCBs and carrier circuits. It is impossible to use these methods in large-scale PCBs because of their low shrinking lenience, warpage, and moderately high tracing opposition of surfaces. Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Circuit BoardYou can fabricate LTCC PCBs by mixing crystal glass, composite glass, and non-glass adhesive materials. Then it would help if you carried out sheet generation and circuit tracing with a highly conductive gold paste. LTCC creates a conduit to metal paste for circuit tracing. Besides, you can complete circuit board baking by making some changes to the thick film pasting. Also, you can improve the product accuracy and shrinking capacity of your board. Thick Film Ceramic PCBYou can repeat a thick layer of gold paste on print on your ceramic base. However, you should bake the layers at a temperature below 10000C. While this fabrication strategy is ideal for large-scale ceramic circuit board production, its use is limited because of the high gold prices. Alternatively, you can create a multi-layered, highly concentrated copper circuit board. That is the most common ceramic circuit board in the PCB manufacturing industry right now. Remember to bake your ceramic board in nitrogen gas to prevent the oxidation of copper. Apart from that, the dielectric paste produced by nitrogen gas is an essential ingredient of this technology.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/30/2021 17:16
Annular ring in PCB
Do you know what is annular ring in PCB？Since annular ring is a very important factor during the PCB manufacturing process, it is necessary for us to get into the knowledge of annular ring. In this passage, we will lead you to learn every detail of annular ring, please follow us and read the content we prepare for you below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is annular ring? When you drill a hole into a copper PCB pad, the resulting copper surrounding the hole is what we know as annular rings. It essentially acts as the wall of the drilled via. Your annular ring size will depend on the size of the via and the size of the copper pad’s size. But what is the purpose of the annular rings? As you may or may not know, PCBs are multi-layered. Your circuit board traces will need to connect to various layers of your PCB. They usually achieve this by reaching a pad which routes them through to another layer by a via. The annular ring surrounding the via facilitates the connection between the trace and the via. What this means is the thicker the annular ring, the stronger the connection. But how thick should the annular rings be, and how do you calculate it? How to calculate annular ring? To find an annular ring’s width, you need to use this formula: (pad diameter – via diameter) ÷ 2. If the diameter of the pad is 25 mils (0.50mm) and the hole/via is 15 mils (0.38mm) then your equation will look like this:(25 - 15) ÷ 2 = 5 mils(0.50 – 0.38) ÷ 2 = 0.06mm. Let us look at further real-world examples. That will include the annular ring's width for standard vias, micro via, and component holes. Standard Via Generally, a standard via will feature a hole with a diameter of 0.20mm (7.87 mils). On a 0.40mm (15.74 mils) pad, your final equations will look like this:(0.40mm – 0.20mm) ÷ 2 = 0.10mm(15.74 mils – 7.87 mils) ÷ 2 = 3.93 mils Microvia Micro vias are typically smaller than your standard holes. They will have a hole diameter of 0.10mm (3.93 mils). On a pad with a diameter of 0.30mm(11.82mm), your equation will look like this:(0.30mm – 0.10mm) ÷ 2 = 0.10mm(11.82 mils – 3.93 mils) ÷ 2 = 3.93 mils Component Hole As we discussed earlier, component holes tend to be larger than average vias. On a pad with a 1.20mm (47.24 mils) diameter and a 0.80mm (31.50 mils) hole, your equation will look like this:(1.20mm – 0.80mm) ÷ 2 = 0.20mm(47.24 mils – 31.50 mils) ÷ 2 = 7,87 mils Why is the width of annular ring important? As discussed earlier in the guide, the annular ring connects to the traces and the various layers of the PCB. Thus, it should be sizeable enough to support a reliant connection. The thicker the annular ring, the stronger the connection around the via will be. If the annular ring is not thick enough, it may cause connection issues or breaks. You may have heard the term “teardrop annular ring” before. Teardrop pads feature additional copper near the junction of the annular ring that connects to the PCB traces. They assist in creating a more secure connection that may be more resistant to stress. The idea here is simple. The more copper around the via, the thicker the annular ring is, and the stronger the signal it can carry to and from the traces. How to position via in annular ring? Not only do your annular rings have to be ample in size, but you need to position the hole (via) correctly. If you have positioned the hole too close to the pad’s boundaries, it could cause a tangency. Additionally, a tangency may also occur if the annular rings are too thin. Nevertheless, when you drill your hole, you want to drill through the center of the copper pad. That will give you the most structurally efficient annular rings. Drilling too close to the pad’s edges will give you a compromised or bad via, which will effectively end in a tangency. Drill too far from the middle of the pad could end up in a breakout. This is when the drill offsets the hole and breaks the pad’s boundaries’ continuity, resulting in a structurally insufficient annular ring. The annular rings structure is largely dependent on where you drill your hole and place it via. It would help if you avoided both a breakout and tangency when you assemble your PCB. Nonetheless, this is how vias and annular rings are related.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/29/2021 16:55
Castellated holes in PCB
Castellated holes are indentations whose creation is in the form of semi-plated spots. Mostly, you’ll find these plated holes on the edges of printed circuit boards. Based on the application, these holes may differ in appearance. As opposed to the standard half holes, some may appear like a large or small portion of a circle that’s broken. The half holes do serve as pads with an obvious intention. The intention is to create good connections between the module board and another board; that’s the board where the soldering will occur. As mentioned earlier, castellated holes are increasingly becoming popular. In this passage, we provide you very detailed information of castellated holes in PCB. Please come and read the content we prepare for you below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why to use castellated holes? We use castellated holes for a whole lot of different reasons. Mostly, designers use them to create printed circuit board modules. Examples of these PCB modules include Bluetooth and Wi-Fi modules. We also use castellated holes in combining two boards. Castellated holes bring about excellent wireless PCB-to-PCB links. How are castellated holes formed?Creating or instead of forming castellated holes is not a complicated process as such. It’s a straightforward process than you may imagine. The creation of these holes is through a normal via the method. It includes drilling and copper plating full holes in the PCB, which involves cutting the top spot in half. These will form partial or half holes on the edge of the PCB. What are the advantages of castellated holes?Without a doubt, castellated holes come with their advantages worth noting. They are the new thing, especially in the world of PCBs. The following are some of the merits of using castellated holes: Easily change the pin layout of componentsCastellated holes are advantageous when it comes to changing the pin layout. These holes give designers an easy time when they want to change the pin layout. Sometimes, users may have different pin layout requirements. With castellated holes, it’s relatively easy to change the pin layout. Verify solder joint qualityDesigners use castellated holes to combine two boards. When it comes to solder joint quality, castellated holes play an important role here. They are helpful as they help in validating the quality of the solder joint. For small modules such as patch panels or Wi-Fi modulesCastellated holes are also helpful, especially for breakout boards and small modules such as Wi-Fi modules. Create wireless PCB-to-PCB linkIf there’s anything good about castellated holes, then it’s the fact that they foster wireless PCB-to-PCB links. Wireless links increase efficiency, flexibility, and bring about cost savings. Further use in another componentCastellated holes are also advantageous as designers can use them in another component. PCBs that have castellated holes can easily mount to another PCB during production. The ease of mounting is another significant advantage that comes with castellated holes. Easy installationThe ease of installation is an excellent reason to use castellated holes. Installing such holes on a PCB isn’t a complicated process as such. Unlike other types of holes, it’s easy to install castellated fixes. What are the specifications of castellated holes? When designing castellated holes, there are some design attributes to follow. Failure to comply with design attributes may end up being futile. It could affect the functionality of the board in totality. The following are what manufacturers need to follow. Compliance with design attributesWhen designing a castellated hole, compliance is necessary. Manufacturers need to comply with all the design attributes. That way, they’ll be able to manufacture boards that meet market expectations. If they happen to skip some steps, then the problem awaits them. Compliance is imperative. If there are steps, you need to follow them. Is there any necessary equipment to use? Don’t ignore them. Compliance is a significant specification when designing castellated holes. It’s as simple as that. SizeBesides compliance with design attributes, size also matters. According to industry standards, it’s advisable to use the largest sizes. Do you have a chance to use the largest possible size? If so, then use it. But why does size matter? The size of the feature allows the use of any surface finish. Surface finishA surface finish is necessary for the design of a castellated hole. When designing castellated holes, surface finishing is essential. Manufacturers use surface finishes for two fundamental reasons: to ensure perfect solderability and protect the exposed copper. Of importance to note is that the surface finish that you use varies. Mostly, it depends on the intended use of your boards. The most recommended finis is ENIG. There are several types of finishes besides ENIG. Others include HASL and OSP, to mention but a few. Pad DesignPad design is another design attribute that you need to follow. It is advisable to use the most massive possible pad. It should be both on top and on the bottom of the place. By going for the largest possible residence, rest assured the best-castellated holes. Large pads give you room to drill holes with a lot of ease and precision. For the best results, consider using the most considerable places. Number of HolesMostly, the number of holes depends on the design. Again, it’s advisable to go for the maximum number of spots. Many holes make things relatively easy for assembly. The optimum number of holes ensures easy alignment. Many holes provide that the assembly process isn’t complicated. It will be easy to see where each component will fit. Therefore, for an easy assembly process, many holes matter. The lesser the number of holes, the more difficult the PCBA assembly process will be. ISO9001, UL, RoHS certificationCertifications matter during the design of castellated holes. Do they follow ISO9001, UL, and RoHS certification standards? Certificates are necessary here. Failure to follow certifications may see you producing faulty boards. For instance, RoHS certification calls for the best disposal methods of waste products. The castellated hole must follow UL and ISO9001 standards. They must meet criteria such as outer layer copper thickness and the minimum diameter of plated half holes.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/28/2021 17:15
Prepreg and core in PCB
Prepreg is a dielectric material that designers pack in between a copper and a Core or between two Cores in a PCB to provide the required insulation. Prepreg is simply an insulation layer. Since it can bind a copper foil and a Core, it is safe to refer to it as a binding material. Users can also modify Prepreg to their needs as peculiar dielectric materials. They can also use a chemical process to transform a certain part of a Prepreg into a conductive region through the combination of specific catalysts and additives. The PCB Core is the glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheets and copper traces’ FR4 layers. The Prepreg binds the layers and PCB Core together when users heat the Core. In this passage, we are talking about the roles of Prepreg and core in PCB. Come and check the content we provide below for more detailed information. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the differences of Prepreg and core? PCB cores and laminates are similar and quite different. Your core is effectively one or more Prepreg laminates that are pressed, hardened, and cured with heat, and the core is plated with copper foil on each side. The Prepreg material is impregnated with a resin, where the resin is hardened but left uncured. Most manufacturers describe the prepreg as the glue that holds core materials together; when two cores are stacked on each side of a prepreg laminate, exposing the stack to heat causes the resin to begin bonding to the adjacent layers. The hardened resin slowly cures through cross linking, and its resulting material properties start to approach those of the core layers. The resin material encases a glass weave, and the manufacturing process for this glass weave is very similar to that used to manufacture yarns. The glass weave can be quite tight (e.g., 7628 prepreg) or loose (e.g., 1080 prepreg), which is controlled with a loom during manufacturing. Any gaps and the overall homogeneity of the yarn will determine the electromagnetic properties, which is then responsible for dispersion, losses, and any fiber weave effects seen by signals in the board. PCB core vs. prepreg materials can have somewhat different dielectric constants, depending on the resin content, type of resin, and glass weave. This can be a problem when designing boards that require very precise impedance matching as the effective dielectric constant seen by a signal on a track depends on the dielectric constants of the surrounding materials. Not all prepreg and core materials are compatible with each other, and core/prepreg stacks with very different dielectric constants make it difficult to predict exact dielectric constants and losses in an interconnect . With any PCB core or prepreg material, creepage and leakage current is a concern at high voltage. Electromigration of copper and subsequent growth of conductive filaments are one reason for creepage specifications for FR4 materials. This problem, as well as a desire to increase glass transition and decomposition temperatures, motivated a switch to non-dicyandiamide (non-DICY) resins in FR4 cores and laminates. Phenolic resins provide higher decomposition and glass transition temperatures compared to DICY resins while also providing higher insulation resistance after full curing. What are the applications of Prepreg and core? Multi-layered boardsWhat holds the layers together is the multi-layered board of Prepreg. The user will need to fuse them when they stack all the board’s layers by exposing it to high temperatures. They will then have the similarity between the overall board thicknesses with the Prepreg thickness. When the designers use the Prepreg on a multi-layered board, it must have specific characteristics. The new surface must not have excessive resin powder, cracks, foreign matter, defects, stains, or oil. It must have a smooth feel and look. Complex PCBsEngineers will probably have a more complex Prepreg if they have a complex PCB. As a result, they can only achieve the needed thickness for the board and Prepreg to use different types of Prepreg. What is the effective dielectric constant of Prepreg and core? With the obvious structural variations in core and prepreg materials, getting an accurate value for the dielectric constant and loss tangent is important from a signal integrity standpoint. When your signals have low rise time, you can probably get away with taking a value from a marketing datasheet. Once your knee frequencies or analog signals hit the GHz range, you need to be careful with values quoted from datasheets, especially when modeling interconnect behavior and using impedance controlled routing. The problem with datasheet values is that the actual dielectric constant measured depends on the test method, routing geometry, specific frequencies (especially in the GHz range), resin content, and even material thickness. The weave pattern in PCB core/prepreg materials makes them highly inhomogeneous and anisotropic, meaning the important material properties vary in space and along different directions. This is the reason we have fiber weave effects, such as skew and fiber cavity resonances. You might be thinking, why should the thickness of a laminate matter when characterizing material properties? The reason is that the important parameter that characterizes signal behavior is the effective dielectric constant (remember, this is a complex quantity!), which depends on the trace dimensions and layer thickness you use in you material. Take a look at these articles for microstrip and symmetric stripline transmission lines. Finally, the other important parameter to consider is the copper roughness on a given laminate. The two articles I linked to above provide effective dielectric constant values for microstrip and stripline transmission line geometries while assuming no copper roughness. However, there is a simple linear approximation you can use to account for copper roughness: If you’re working at extreme high speeds/high frequencies with low signal levels, and you require highly accurate interconnect characterization, then your best bet is to create a test coupon and use a standard measurement to determine the effective dielectric constant. Your test method should use a geometry that closely matches your intended interconnect geometry. This takes some work on the front end, but accurate test and measurement could save you unnecessary prototyping runs on the back end.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/28/2021 17:08
The solderability test determines the solderability of terminals and leads through a specific soldering operation. Solderability measures how perfect or imperfect the metal is wet by molten solder to secure all connections. Evaluating solderability tells your PCB tester whether the attached parts, such as terminations and leads, can withstand high temperatures. High temperatures may occur during welding. Tests also determine whether these components’ storage will adversely affect their ability to solder to circuit boards. Understanding matters to do with PCB solderability tests can significantly minimize board failures while improving the product’s final quality. In short, solderability is the molten solder’s ability to maintain a uniform liquid state unbroken and even during the soldering process.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the types of solderability test? There are three primary types of solderability tests. They include the following: Immersion approach This method also goes by the name Dip and Look. The “immersion” approach subjects the termination and leads up to 8 hours of steam conditioning. The steam conditioning is over; what follows is the dipping of components’ termination into the solder. This factor accelerates the aging process. Finally, inspection follows to ensure that they meet the required standards. The surface mount simulation test It is another primary type of solderability test. It’s available for all SMT components, such as those that aren’t compatible with other types of PCB test methods, such as the “immersion” approach. Wet balance analysis Lastly, there’s wet balance analysis, a type of test that ages the circuit board components. Here, the testers get to plot the wetting force, beginning at negative (non-wet). What is the importance of solderability test? Solderability test on a printed circuit board is critical. If you fail to undertake some tests, then you are inviting trouble. There’s nothing riskier and expensive than rolling out faulty boards to the market. You can avoid such by only undertaking solderability tests. So what’s the importance of the PCB solderability test? Here they are: Evaluation of PCB coating, solder and flux Solderability tests ensure that you assess the quality of your coating, solder, and flux before introducing them to the market. Having great coating solder and flux will give the end-user ample time during repairs while also ensuring the product is long-lasting. Perform quality control Solderability tests confirm that there’s quality control of the circuit boards that PCB manufacturers make. By doing so, manufacturers ensure that they produce high-quality products that meet customer satisfaction. Reduce assembly problems, including misapplication of solder mask During assembly, problems are likely to occur. Some of the typical assembly problems include insufficient copper-to-edge clearance and lousy soldering. Others include the misapplication of the mask, the solder mask, and non-wetting challenges. Fortunately, though, such isn’t the case with solderability tests. Manufacturers that get to undertake solderability tests will realize reduced assembly problems, an aspect that gives them an edge over their competitors. Improve the possibility of reliable solder joints In the field of electronics, the quality of the solder matters a lot. Therefore, with poor solder joints, then the transmission of signals from one point of the board to the next would almost be impossible. Reliability in solder joints is necessary for the proper functionality of the whole board. These tests point out faulty solder joints that need attention, thereby bringing out the possibility of having reliable solder joints. Verify secure storage It’s essential to store these circuits within the shortest time possible as means of reducing possible damages. Solderability tests are crucial here because they help verify that suppliers meet solderability requirements. They help in proving that storage conditions don’t degrade solderability. With solderability tests, it’s easy to estimate some of the long-term effects that accompany storage.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/26/2021 17:09
The reflow soldering process is a little bit different than wave soldering, but it’s the most common way to attach surface mount components to a circuit board. Wave soldering is more frequently used for soldering through-hole components. Although it’s possible to use reflow soldering for this purpose, it rarely is since wave soldering is more cost-effective. In reflow soldering, we make a solder paste out of powdered solder and flux, then use that paste to attach components to contact pads. We then heat the entire assembly in a reflow oven or under an infrared lamp to melt the solder and connect the joint. You can solder individual joints with a hot air pencil if necessary.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the advantages of reflow soldering? As mentioned already, an infrared lamp is used to heat the air and melt the solder in the reflow soldering technique. The board is passed through a tunnel or reflow oven where it is heated in a controlled manner. In this, you apply the solder paste only over the areas (contact pads) where you want to assemble the electronic components. The reflow soldering process produces reliable joints that are solid. Since they do not undergo any thermal shock, the joints are strong. Besides, they require minimal monitoring, and the process is conducted in controlled conditions. The reflow soldering technique is ideal for soldering surface mount components. It is most commonly used for assembling PCBs in mass production. Pros of Reflow Soldering ·It is preferable for SMT assembly·It produces only a less thermal shock·It is one of the most reliable soldering technique·It has options for limited soldering·It requires only a minimum level of monitoring·It leads to less wastage·It can be used to solder specific parts of a PCB What are the preparations to do reflow soldering? There are two main steps involved in the reflow soldering process of PCB. The first is to apply the solder paste and the second is to assemble the components. 1. Solder PasteBefore applying the solder paste, you have to use a solder mask to ensure the solder is applied only to the areas where the copper pads will be installed. If you do not apply the solder mask properly, it will lead to the formation of solder bridges. By using the solder paste, you can apply the solder paste only on the areas in PCB where soldering is needed. 2. Pick and PlaceOnce you have applied the solder, then you can assemble the components on the board. If the number of components is less, you can manually assemble the components. But if the components are more or if you are soldering on a commercial level, then it is best to use a pick and place machine. With the pick and place machine, you can place the components on the board automatically. The components will be held onto the board by the surface tension of the solder paste. But in some cases, you have to apply glue to ensure the components do not fall off from the board. If you apply glue, it will be difficult to rework the PCB. Once you have placed the components on the board, then you can move them to the reflow soldering machine. Reflow Soldering StageThe reflow soldering process consists of several stages to ensure the joints are strong. The temperature of the board is gradually increased before the soldering process to prevent thermal shocks. The four different stages of the reflow soldering process are as follows, PreheatYou have to heat the board slowly to bring it up to the required temperature. If you subject the board to rapid heating, it will lead to thermal shock and break the board. Besides, if the heating is not stable, it will cause hot and cool spots on the board. Some parts of the board will have a higher temperature. And, some parts of the board will have a lower temperature. For infra-red reflow soldering, you have to raise the temperature of the board by 2 to 30C. In some cases, you can also increase the temperature by 10C. Thermal SoakOnce you have brought the board to the required temperature, you have to move it to the thermal soak area. In this, you have to maintain the board at a steady temperature. This will ensure that all areas of the board are brought up to the required temperature. Additionally, it will also remove the solder paste and activate the flux. ReflowIn the reflow area, the temperature of the board reaches the highest point. The reflow process melts the solder and fuses the solder joints. The high temperature causes the flux to reduce the surface tension at the joints of the metals causing metallurgical bonding. This causes the solder powder to combine and melt. CoolingOnce the solder melts and fuses the joints, you have to allow the board to cool down. You have to make sure that the cooling effect does not cause stress to the components. Cooling the board prevents thermal shock of the components and excess intermetallic formation. Proper cooling temperature should be in the range of 30 – 1000C. This temperature range creates a fast cooling effect and provides strong joints. Reflow OvensReflow ovens are large machines that are used to assemble PCBs. These machines provide soldering capability to both small and large PCB assembly areas. If you are soldering in a small PCB assembly area, then you can buy smaller reflow ovens according to your rework and assembly area. These machines are tailored to suit the needs of small PCB assembly areas.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/24/2021 18:02
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