How to Test PCB with 5 PCB Testing Techniques?
As the essential part of part of PCB manufacturing process When PCB testing is conducted throughout the production cycle, it can help save money and prevent issues when it comes to the final production run. These tests, run on prototypes or small-scale assemblies, look most closely at potential shorts, solder joint issues and functionality, ensuring that each tested PCB will function as intended. In this passage, we will provide 5 PCB testing techniques to finish the test process for PCB. If you are going to learn more professional knowledge, please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the advantages of PCB testing? Many companies see PCB testing as an absolute must due to the many advantages it provides them. Check out some of the following top advantages of PCB testing: Increased safetySince PCBs are often used in essential electronic technologies, their failure can cause major issues for a company’s productivity or an organization’s ability to perform essential services. A defective PCB could cause a fire, potentially putting those near it in danger. Time savingsPCB testing in the early stages can help save time in the long run, allowing designers to identify major issues during the prototyping stage. Thorough testing enables designers to determine the root cause of each problem posed quickly and easily, making adjustments so that they can move on with production at a faster rate and reduce product lead-time. Cost reductionPCB testing prevents wasteful production of faulty products by using prototypes and small-scale assemblies to test the products. By completing thorough testing early in the design process, designers can prevent wasteful full-scale assemblies of faulty PCBs, ensuring that the design is as flawless as possible before it goes into production. What are the different 5 types of PCB test? What is In-Circuit Testing? In-circuit testing (ICT) is a fully automated test. It’s also known as bed-of-nails testing because the method resembles a bed of nails. In ICT, the PCB is pressed down on a board of probes, and needles come up to test the circuit at predesigned access points. A certain amount of pressure is applied to see if the connections are working correctly. In-circuit testing is the most thorough of the tests and takes the most time. Because of these factors, this test comes at a high price point. For ICT, the cost can reach more than $10,000 depending on your printed circuit board’s size and functionality. What is Flying Probe Test? The flying probe test (FPT) is an automated testing technique. In this technique, one or more automated robotic probes fly over the cross-section of assembled PCBs. These robotic probes perform the inspection while flying from pin to pin. In this technique, the flying probe checks the performance of mounted components. This technique of PCB inspection is adopted for inspecting prototype PCBs and high-density PCBs. This technique is preferably chosen for small batches of PCB testing. However, this technique can also be used for high-volume PCBs batches of PCB testing, where the probe is moved across the length of the conveyor where assembled PCBs awaiting testing and inspection are placed. What is AOI? AOI system uses a single 2D or two 3D cameras visual input to monitor PCBs for defects. They are able to sense a variety of defects such as nodules, scratches, and stains as well as the more familiar dimensional defects such as open circuits, shorts, and thinning of the solder. AOI is very useful for the early detection of assembly issues. The template method is more accurate, however this is time-consuming to set-up and is not suitable for prototype designs subject to changes. What is X-Ray Inspection? The X-Ray or AXI can detect elements that are usually hidden from view, such as internal traces & ball grid array packages with solder joints under the chip package. There are 2D & 3D AXI tests available in today’s PCB industry, with 3D offering a faster testing period. When used alongside the production process, AXI can be a useful tool for detecting defects early on, thus allowing engineers to make process adjustments to eliminate the source of the issue. This reduces the number of boards requiring costly repairs. For small batches or prototyping, x-ray inspection of only the chip components with hidden pads is often sufficient. Advantages:· Can have the highest defect detection rates of common inspection methods.· Emphasis on long-time solder joint quality, not just connections. What is Burn-in Test? As the name suggestions, burn-in testing is a more intense type of testing for multilayer PCBs. It’s designed to detect early failures and establish load capacity. Because of its intensity, burn-in testing can be destructive to the parts being tested. Burn-in testing pushes power through your electronics, usually at its maximum-specified capacity. The power is run through the board continuously for 48 to 168 hours. If a board fails, it is known as an infant mortality. For military or medical applications, boards with high infant mortality are clearly not ideal.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/14/2021 09:25
7 Tips of How to Create Gerber File Easily?
After you’ve designed a printed circuit board, your contract manufacturer will create reliable PCBs from your design. One of the most important documents that you will create for this process is the Gerber file, which is used to fabricate the raw circuit board. Therefore, your documentation must be complete and accurate. To help you to be better prepared, here’s a look at how Gerber files are explained and how they’re used in the manufacturing of your circuit board. In this passage, we will provide you everything about the details about it. So please check and read the content we prepare for the more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 7 tips of generate Gerber file?1. Knowing the role of Gerber file of PCB Gerber file history can be traced back to the needs of the original vector photoplotters. In order to give the plotter its instructions, a Gerber file contained minimal plotter configuration information, and X/Y coordinates followed by a flash or drawing command and which aperture position to use. The Gerber data has increased in functionality over the year; it now includes additional configuration information as well as macro and aperture definitions. The PCB manufacturing technology used today has come a long way over the past decades. Previously, vector photoplotters were used to create the tooling film used in the PCB manufacturing process. There was only a minimal set of apertures available and designers had to be creative in restricting their flashes and lines to only the apertures that were available to them.2. Try to learn Gerber file format RS274-DThe oldest format of Gerber file designed by Gerber Scientific. The file was represented in the numerical control (NC) format, and it was compatible with different photo plotters used in the 1970s. Due to several drawbacks of this format, manual input of d-codes, user interpretation, other types of Gerber files have been developed since. RS274XThis Gerber file format has been used since 1998. This revised format of RS274-D utilizes an embedded format, unit and data information. The apertures defining the layers are embedded allowing for standard sizes and custom apertures. In addition, the RS274X format allows the designer to utilize film control, multiple layer structure for single layers, special polygon fill commands, polarity controls, and much more.3. Where to meet PCB in Gerber file? So far, we have covered the essential details of PCBs are and their importance. Wne have also tried to explain in a nutshell the essence of Gerber files. From the two definitions, it was prominent that Gerber files are the software sketches that are used to communicate information about the composition of circuit boards. The two differ in that software applications handle Gerber files whereas PCBs mount electronic components.4. How to process missing board online? Among other Gerber file pieces, the board outline is arguably one of the simplest ones. However, besides its simplicity, it is still essential to describe the board edge's real bounds to your manufacturer. By issuing out such specifications, you ensure that there is excellent routing from the panel. The board outline should not be missing at all and must be present all the time. So, you need to ensure that you double-check for board outline. By doing this, you will be ensuring that you save a lot of communication time.5. What are composite layers in Gerber file? Specific CAD software packages can split single copper layers into several Gerber files. Such a phenomenon is prevalent, especially for layers consisting of filled areas. The software can generate a separate file for traces, one for the copper pour, and a single for clearance. The issue comes about due to a specific option that's within the CAD software. It would help if you were sure that you double-check all your files using a Gerber Viewer. That is before making your submission. If possible, you may have to ensure that you correct the settings of your CAD software.6. What is the importance of Gerber file for PCB? As discussed earlier, PCB designs are getting complex, and the use of small components is required in complex and compact designs. Compact designs are constructed of multiple layers. The older vector photo plotters were only capable of tracing the single-layered design and component locations. PCB Gerber files are suitable for even more than 20 -layer PCBs. That is where Gerber files play an important role in the PCB manufacturing and fabrication industry. PCB Gerber files are suitable for multiple layered PCB designs as it traces layer by layer construction, along with the solder paste layers and component locations.7. Trying to solve drawing lines of Gerber file A majority of manufacturers receive Gerber files that lack fabrication drawing with them. But what's the importance of a fab drawing? What's in a fabrication drawing? A fab drawing indicates a board's dimension. There are also important details, such as material type, file names, and thickness. Any data that will help manufacturers to understand essential information about your board is helpful. But, when it comes to the submission of Gerber output files, most of them miss a fabrication drawing. If you want to ensure high-quality boards' production, you must ensure that you submit your Gerber output file plus the fabrication drawing together.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/13/2021 10:07
5 PCB Design Principles：How to design PCB for beginners？
A PCB is where all the electrical/electronic components are held together and interconnected without any wires. And as a pretty important beginning process of the PCB manufacturing, PCB design plays an essential role of the whole process. While designing a new PCB, it is necessary to adhere to design basics. If neglected, it will result in a poor board design that will be very difficult to manufacture. It is necessary to know the basic knowledge of it. Please check and read the content we prepare for you below. If you are curious about the basic information of PCB principles for beginners, please check and read the professional knowledge we prepare.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. 1. How to decide the size and component? Select the smaller package version of the component if you have spacing issues. Moreover, choose your appropriate component and package based on the required current, voltage, and frequency. Smaller components are manufactured by various vendors. It allows designers to choose alternate parts without modifying the schematic or layout, providing a timely solution for components that are not in stock. Furthermore, it is crucial to decide the appropriate size of the package during the PCB design phase. It is recommended to choose smaller packages only when necessary; otherwise, choose larger packages.2. How to make breadboard? Most breadboards are arranged into two groups of five-pin columns. Running down the sides are rows of interconnected pins which typically function as +5v and ground. The middle ground between the two sets of columns is spaced so that a DIP integrated circuit can mount the top, with pins on either side. This is where your microcontroller might sit, forming the heart of a flexible electronic circuit. At this stage, however, you’ll probably be using an Arduino or something similar. The layout of a breadboard allows components to be connected to one another via the columns and rows. For example, you might have a resistor running from one column to another, which in turn is connected to an LED. Either end of the circuit could then be connected to the two power terminals.3. How to calculate trace width? The tracks are like wires. They are the elements that allow the electric current to flow in your electronic circuit. As we know, the higher the value of the electric current, the larger the section of a conductor must be, so that it can allow the conduction of current. You can access the link on the Digikey website and enter the current and temperature parameters for the project. Later, the website will inform the ideal value of the width of your trail. It is important to highlight that the site is safe and uses the equations of the IPC-2221 standard to calculate the width of the tracks: Access the link and calculate the track width4. How to avoid routing defects? Avoid routing at an acute angle in any case, even if it is a non-high-speed signal, because the acute-angle track will cause problems during the PCB manufacturing process. During the PCB circuit corrosion processing, the corner of acute angle will increase the corrosive effect PCB circuit corrosion is excessive, which will lead to the problem of open circuit. As for high-frequency and high-speed circuits, it is necessary to avoid the use of acute angles. The track width at the corners is severely changed, causing impedance discontinuities and causing signal integrity problems.5. How to process schematic checks? A schematic is a well-structured circuit diagram that represents the electrical connections between various electronic components. Schematic design basics often get ignored. Make sure you verify the following: · Verification of pin numbering and labels in component symbols· A polarity check for all the polarized components· Overlapping labels and Pins· Ensuring the base, collector, and emitter pins according to the schematic symbols, datasheet, and footprint package· Validation of the component value, location, and reference designators· Descriptions of the schematic symbols· Off-page connectors· Checking the inter-sheet reference· Decoupling capacitor check for all ICs, ground pin separation according to the signal type (analog, digital, signal, ground)· Netlist check for design correctness and wrong connections· Add test points to all important signalsWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/13/2021 09:57
5 Soldering Issues in PCB in PCB Manufacturing Process
At soldering iron temperature, solder will stick to oxides and contaminants to produce a visually acceptable connection. However, the connection lacks an intermetallic bond and the high temperature degrades bonds inside components. The altered bonds change electrical values and shorten component life. In just a few seconds of improper application, a soldering iron can shorten the life expectancy of components by decades. In this passage, we will tell you 5 soldering issues during the manufacturing process. If you are facing the challenges of PCB soldering, please check and read the content we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main 5 Soldering Issues in PCB? What is Solder Bridging? As the name implies, solder bridging is akin to having a bridge of solder built between two adjacent component pads. It usually happens on fine-pitch SMD components, such as a microcontroller on an LQFP package. When left unspotted, the short circuit created by the solder bridge can cause the circuit to malfunction and, in some cases, damage the shorted components. The issue can be aggravated if the solder paste mask is absent or only covers a narrow area between the pads. This enables the solder paste to rest on the substrate, which causes solder bridges to easily form. Sometimes, solder bridging is caused by stencil thickness, which affects the volume of solder paste applied onto the pad. A thicker stencil will lead to more solder paste on the pads, which may cause the paste to overflow from one pad to another. What is Soldering Excess Solder? Excess PCB solder on printed circuit boards is a big challenge that manufacturers face when producing these boards. If a board PCB passes through a wave soldering machine but takes too much solder, they'll be an excess solder build-up. Excess solder on a printed circuit board will eventually have an impact on its functionality. Just like Lifted Components and Solder Bridging, there several major causes of excessive solder. Some of them include the following: · We cannot use Failure to orient the same type components in the same direction during wave soldering.· Employing the use of incorrect lengths to pad ratio when designing the printed circuit board.· Conveyor belt running fast on the manufacturer's side.· For you to avoid cases of too much solder, it's advisable not to get too enthusiastic to the extent of applying a lot of solder on the pins. What is Heat sink? The arrival of solid-state components (primarily leaded resistors and capacitors in the early days) meant that the active elements of the circuit were exposed to soldering iron heat. An epidemic of component failures followed until the heat-sensitive nature of these new components was recognized. The solution was the use of metal clamps (“heat sinks”) to protect the component. The clamps were fastened to the lead near the component body. Heat flowed from the iron towards the body but was absorbed (“sunk”) by the clamp. Component failures promptly plummeted. Reliability also benefited from machine soldering which, at the time, was entirely by wave. Wave soldering and, more recently, surface mount reflow subject components to much lower peak temperatures. Heat damage is primarily a hand soldering issue. What is Tombstoning? This happens when a component only connects to one pad and lifts away from the other with no connection. This defect can occur due to improper pad design. For example, if one SMT component has two pads and one is significantly larger than the other it will heat up more quickly. In solder reflow when the pad heats more quickly the solder there will melt first, bonding that pad and causing the component to rise on the other side and fail to connect. What is Cold Joints? Cold joints occur when the soldering iron is at a low temperature or the joint wasn’t heated for long enough. Cold joints are messy, do not last as long, and do not work as well. Sometimes this even limits the functionality of the PCB. The best way to avoid this problem is to exercise proper soldering technique and become certified in IPC J-STD-001, the electrical soldering standard. Or, of course, you could outsource your PCB layout to an expert. What is process of PCB soldering? Today, the most common type of solder is lead-free (Sn-Cu) rosin core solder. Unless your assembler is working a one-off board or you are assembling your own board, the PCBA will not be soldered by hand. Instead, it will go through an automated process: · Wave soldering: Used for through-hole components· Reflow soldering: Used for SMT components in a reflow oven· Selective soldering: Used when a through-hole component might be damaged by high heat or is unsuitable for the wave and reflow processesWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/13/2021 09:38
PCB Stack up Analysis：How to make 4-layer PCB?
You may know the design basics to look out for in PCB multilayer stackup, it’s important to know the types of stackup available and how to choose the right stackup design for your needs. There are five types of PCB layer stackup: 2-layer, 4-layer, 6-layer, 8-layer. How many layers you need is primarily determined by the size of the circuit, the size of the board and the requirements for the board. In this passage, we will introduce you the capability of 4-layer PCB, including the PCB stackup. If you are interested in methods of make 4-layer PCB, check and read the content we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the PCB stackup capabilities? A PCB stackup refers to the arrangement of copper and insulating layers that make up a PCB. These layers are arranged in a way to get multiple printed circuit boards on the same device. At their most basic, multilayer PCBs consist of at least three conductive layers. The bottom layer is synthesized with the insulation board, and each circuit board layer is connected to the next. While PCB layering creates a more complex and space-saving board, PCB stackups also offer the following advantages: · Maximize functionality: Multilayer PCBs can multiply the speed and functionality in the device, making for a more functional board.· Minimize vulnerability: Layer stacks can help protect internal layers from external noise, making it less vulnerable to damaging exterior forces.· Reduce radiation: Well-designed PCB layer stacks can help you minimize radiation from your device, especially in high-speed layouts. It is important to note, however, that poor designs with impedance mismatches can easily result in greater EMI radiation than a normal PCB.· Decrease costs: Good layer PCB stack-ups can also help achieve lower-cost manufacturing by placing multiple circuits onto a single board. One board means streamlined manufacturing for the board, the part the board will be used in and the packaging for the complete setup. What is the importance of PCB stackup? There are three or more conductive layers in one multilayer PCB with two layers outside and one layer synthesized in the insulation board. With the increase of PCB complexities and densities, it's possible for some issues to take place such as noise, stray capacitance and cross talk when layer arrangement gets inefficient design. Planning optimal multilayer stack-up is one of the most important elements in determining the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) performance of a product. A well-designed layer stack-up can both minimize the radiation and can stop circuit from being interfered by external noise sources. Well-stacked PCB substrates can also reduce signal cross talk and impedance mismatch issues. How to make 4-layer PCB? Challenges Most of the BGAs would have a ball pitch between 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm. As the BGA package is usually meant for FPGA and microcontrollers, the number of pins underneath the IC could range. To make matters worse, the diameter of the balls decreases as the pitch gets smaller. Fanning out the traces on a BGA chip and the manufacturing process is fraught with challenges. For example, a BGA chip with a 1.0 mm pitch and a 0.45 mm landing pad can be routed with a 0.18 mm trace on a channel. A channel in BGA routing means the space between two landing pads on the X or Y-axis. Typically, squeezing a 0.18 mm trace between two 1.0 mm pitch is not an issue, except that BGA’s pads are arranged in a dense grid pattern. This means you’ll need to figure out how to connect the inner pads to their respective nets. The task gets much more complicated when you have a BGA with half the pitch size. 4-layer PCB stackup processIn terms of PCB stackup, 4-layer PCBs are the second most common option in multilayer boards. These PCBs have four layers to route electrical signals. These layers are sandwiched together, with a top and bottom layer on the outside and two inner layers contained between them. The top and bottom layers are where components and routing are placed. The inner layers, however, cannot make outside connections, so they are often used as power planes or for signal routing, which helps enhance the quality of trace signals and reduces EMI emissions. It is not recommended to make the inner layers signal layers — if you need four signal layers, it is recommended to look into a 6-layer board. The two inner layers are separated from each other with a core layer, and the top and bottom layers are separated from the inner layers by prepreg. This results in a layer stackup that looks like the following: · Top layer· Prepreg· Inner layer 1· Core· Inner layer 2· Prepreg· Bottom layerWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/11/2021 10:29
How to Prevent Solder Bridging with 5 PCB Manufacturing Process Steps？
The same precision is necessary when assembling components on a PCB. Not only must the components be placed accurately on top of the pads, but the soldering process must be equally flawless, otherwise, you’ll stumble into all sorts of soldering issues, including solder bridging. In this passage, we will provide you the methods of preventing the solder bridging and the main steps of the PCB manufacturing process. If you are interested in this topic, please check and read the content we prepare for more information. Depending on the manufacturer, the PCB manufacturing process may differ slightly, especially in terms of component mounting techniques, testing methods, and so on. They are manufactured in bulk quantities using various automated machines for drilling, plating, punching, and so on.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the reasons of solder bridging? The issue can be aggravated if the solder paste mask is absent or only covers a narrow area between the pads. This enables the solder paste to rest on the substrate, which causes solder bridges to easily form. Sometimes, solder bridging is caused by stencil thickness, which affects the volume of solder paste applied onto the pad. A thicker stencil will lead to more solder paste on the pads, which may cause the paste to overflow from one pad to another. Correctly built footprints Solder bridging can be a result of problems with the component footprints used in PCB design, as well as how those parts are placed on the board. Here are some design recommendations that can help: Be careful to use industry specified pad sizes on your PCB footprints to ensure that a good solder joint can be formed. A surface mount pad must have a correctly sized solder paste shape defined for it to create the right sized aperture in the solder stencil. Make sure that each pad in a PCB footprint has the correct sized solder mask definition built into it for full solder mask protection. Footprint pads should have enough spacing between them for the even application of solder mask between the pads. Solder Mask Defined Pads In instances (BGAs or LGAs) where you need a solder mask dam between two SMT pads, but lack the necessary room to maintain mask relief and a barrier, try using a zero solder mask expansion setting for your pads. These provide a solder mask relief that is the same size as the copper pad it is protecting. If this is the case, you should note this in your fabrication files, thus informing your CM to leave the solder mask defined pad as is, i.e., no standard mask clearances. Fiducial Markers Fiducial markers are specific design markers or indicators that you utilize in the PCB design process. These alignment markers ensure that components place accurately in terms of orientation and alignment with pads. When coupled with adequate design clearances, these markers minimize the likelihood of solder bridging occurrences. What are the 5 key steps of PCB manufacturing?1. Etch Your PCBsPCBs are made by bonding a copper layer over the entire substrate. Sometimes, both sides of the substrate are covered using copper layers. The PCB etching process, also called a controlled horizontal process, is carried out to remove excess copper from the PCB panel using a temporary mask. After the etching process, the circuit board is left with the desired copper traces.2. Stripping Process of PCBsEven after the etching process, some amount of copper remains on the circuit board, which gets covered by tin/lead or electroplated tin. Nitric acid removes tin effectively while maintaining the copper circuit cracks below the tin metal. As a result, you will get a clear distinct copper outline on the circuit board, and the circuit board is ready to be passed on to the next process – Solder Resist.3. Solder ResistThis is one important process in the PCN designing process, which covers unsoldered areas on the circuit boards using solder resist material. As a result, it prevents the solder from forming traces, which can create shortcuts to adjacent component leads.4. PCB TestingAfter the PCB is manufactured, testing becomes crucial to check the functioning and features. In this method, the PCB manufacturer determines whether the circuit board is working as expected. Today, PCBs are tested using several advanced testing equipment. ATG test machine is mainly used for testing high volume PCB route, which include flying probes and fixtureless testers.5. PCB AssemblingThis is the last step of PCB manufacturing which mainly includes the positioning of various electronic components on to their respective holes. This can be carried out by either through-hole technology or surface mount technology. One common aspect of both the techniques is that the leads of the component are fixed electrically as well as mechanically to the circuit board using a molten metal solder.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/11/2021 10:08
5 PCB Common Faults & How to Solve PCB Problem?
During the layout and manufacturing process of PCB, there will be many problems and challenges. Indeed, PCB defects may not be as problematic for prototype designs or smaller volumes boards. It may be frustrating to make a few manual corrections here and there, but those alterations can be more efficient than redesigning the board. For larger production runs, however, this is not the case. In this passage, follow us and check the content below. You will learn everything about PCB common faults. If you are curious about the topic, please read the content we prepare for more knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 PCB common faults? Soldering fault The bulk of printed circuit board defects can be traced back to a soldering issue. Soldering is a technical skill that becomes even more difficult when dealing with the extremely small components on a printed circuit board. Soldering defects can be minimized both during the design process, and during the soldering process. Some of the most common soldering defects include: Open joints, sometimes called “dry joints,” occur when the solder doesn’t bond correctly with the point of contact, typically the pad. Open joints do not always cause your circuit to fail, since there may be solder there that makes poor or occasional contact. Open joints are caused by physical movement or bending, incorrect solder temperature, design or manufacturing errors, as well as impact and shifting during use or transport. Temperature fault Printed circuit boards are affected by temperature, both in storage, and when they are installed in components. Extreme temperatures or large temperature fluctuations may cause components or joints to break or fail. Many people take the maximum or minimum safe temperature into consideration, without thinking about the fluctuations in temperature that may occur either during operation or in storage. Temperature fluctuations can cause expansion and contraction to take place too quickly, causing premature failure of the printed circuit board. Plating fault Holes carry electricity from one side of the board to the other. Plating of the hole wall during manufacture. During this, By establishing the electrical conductivity from the top in the endplate portion depositing copper. If the copper deposition is incorrect, it will create plating voids, leaving gaps in the wall with no copper coating. It could happen due to air bubbles, contamination in the holes, contaminated materials, and other similar reasons. You can prevent this from happening by following the manufacturer’s direction and cleaning the equipment as instructed. Electromagnetic Compatibility fault Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are two standard terms linked with the PCB manufacturing process. The former term is generally used to produce and transmit electromagnetic energy, whereas the latter one talks about the damaging effect of EMC. These issues arise because of possible design flaws and can be decreased simply by lowering the board's ground area. Non-wetting fault The finish on a printed circuit board goes a long way toward determining how well the solder will reflow and how much wetting will occur. If the finish is inadequate and much of the bare board remains exposed, the solder will reflow with more difficulty and stick poorly to the PCB. If the board remains in storage too long, effective soldering becomes more difficult, and the likelihood of non-wetting rises. As we’ve seen, solderability generally corresponds directly to plating thickness. During a long storage period, the plating necessary for good solderability may break down. A PCB stored for a year or more may be at increased risk of poor solderability and non-wetting. How to Solve PCB Problem? Your first defense against printed circuit board defects is going to be your design. Many of the soldering issues that occur, and even many of the problems caused by electrostatic discharge can be mitigated by preventative design elements. Your designers and manufacturing engineers should be able to clearly communicate possible problems so that costly mistakes can be avoided. Something as innocuous as the placement of the power supply, or an incorrect trace width can be extremely costly to fix if it creates defects and failures down the line. An experienced designer will be able to avoid mistakes that may otherwise go unnoticed. You will also want to take care to make sure you are transporting and storing your printed circuit boards safely to help maintain PCB cost down. Prior to receiving your order, you should inspect the location where you will be storing your printed circuit boards or finished products in order to make sure that the temperature and humidity are controlled, and that workers are properly trained on how to handle printed circuit boards in order to avoid creating static electricity, impact, and vibration.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/11/2021 09:47
Top 5 PCB Design Software & What is the best PCB design software？
To the PCB designers, the design software is pretty important to them and the manufacturing process and the quality of the finished boards. PCB design software aids electronic engineers in designing layouts for printed circuit boards. PCB design software is often implemented as a part of other design software systems such as product and machine design software and general-purpose CAD software. In this passage, we will provide you top 5 PCB design software. If you are curious about which is the best software for PCB designers, welcome to check and read the content below formore information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the top 5 PCB Design Software? EAGLEEAGLE is a PCB design software developed by the German CadSoft Computer GmbH created by Rudolf Hofer and Klaus-Peter Schmidiger in 1988. The company was acquired by Farnell in 2009 and by Autodesk in 2016, a world class software heavyweight with over 2 billion euros of turnover. EAGLE stands for Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor. The software is available in 3 versions: · EAGLE Free: the limited trial version for DIY fans· EAGLE standard: 99 diagram sheets, 4 signal layers and a 160 cm² printed circuit area· EAGLE Premium: the professional version with 999 diagram sheets, 16 signal layers and an unlimited printed circuit area Features and specifications · Diagram editor (connected to the library, electric rules, generation of an interconnection list)· Annotation of changes between the diagram and the PCB quote· Diagram hierarchy· Layout diagram with advanced features PROTELPORTEL company introduced the circuit design software (CAD) PROTEL in the circuit industry in the the late 80s, 20th century, which is deservedly ranked highly among many EDA software and is circuit designers’ preferred software. Altium Designer 20 has been released, with new features that improve the overall user experience, and its fluency and smoothness have been improved. In this version, the arbitrary-angle routing function is newly introduced to complete the escape routing of dense BGA packages, the routing optimization processing is also improved, the new DirectX accelerated schematic editor engine, and many other enhancements. It is good for one or two layers’ board, however, it becomes a little bit hard to use when it comes to more than 4 layers, not to mention the PCB design in signal transmission of high frequency and high-speed digitization. KiCADKiCAD is a Cross-Platform and Open Source Electronics Design Automation Suite. It includes a schematic editor for creating and editing schematic designs, a PCB Editor for making professional PCB layouts with up to 32 copper layers, and a 3D viewer which can be used to inspect the design in a 3D form. Unlike Eagle, KiCAD is entirely free, and no paywall is needed to use some of its features. Features and specifications · Kicad: project manager· Eeschema: electric diagram editor· Pcbnew: printed circuit editor· Cvpcb: utility to select the physical imprints of components used on the diagram· Gerbview: Gerber file viewer· Pcbcalculator: design aid tool to calculate resistance values, track widths, etc. OrCADBorn in 1988 of the merger of SDA Systems and ECAD, Cadence Design Systems is currently a leader on the electronics CAD software market. Based in San José in California, it is a NASDAQ listed company with a turnover of about 2 billion dollars. Features and specifications Diagrams, layout and routing· Interactive, real time routing with built-in constraints· Automatic shape creation and update· Automatic BGA assistance PCBWeb Designer Features PCBWeb is a free CAD program for electronic development and manufacturing. It has a multi-page design schematic shot, multilayer support for the printed circuit board layout, and a broad range of details. By using this popular PCB program, multi-sheeted schemes can produce with a fast and easy to use wiring tool. Even you can direct multilayer boards with copper fill support and DRC checks. Additionally, you can find an integrated list of Arrow information with a specification manager. The tool is easy to use. It lets you generate Gerbers, shares your project through Publish, and create custom parts. I think the integration of Digi-key parts in the tool is a big thing. Not all tools have this. Add to that the freedom of the users to choose from different board houses. On the contrary, there are still many areas that need improvement. But, seeing that the tool is still young, it's a nice start. I would love to see the tool to improve in the future. It has a lot of potentialsWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/10/2021 09:39
6 types of PCB surface finishes & PCB surface finishes comparison
PCB surface finishes are intended to protect your board from external harm. Let’s explore the types of PCB surface finishes and see when we should opt for which type. In circuit board manufacturing, the process of implementing the PCB surface finish is critical in enhancing the reliability and shelf life of the PCBA. Since PCB surface finish is pretty important to PCB manufacturing, we provide you different types of PCB surface finish. And if you are looking for the professional knowledge about this topic, please check and read the content we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the features of PCB surface finishes? PCBs are made of copper to ensure electric currents flow efficiently. These metals require appropriate protection from the elements to avoid oxidation and other corrosion. A range of finish types provide different levels of protection against deterioration. They also aid in certain use, such as with soldering. Various circuit board finishes are available, from options that are affordable and easy-to-apply to expensive or difficult-to-manage finishes used in only the most advanced applications. What are the considerations about PCB surface finishes? The PCB surface finish helps protect copper circuitry from corrosion. It also provides a solderable surface for your components. There are a number of factors to consider, including: · The components you use· Your expected production volume· Your requirements for durability· Environmental impact, and· Cost What are the 6 different types of PCB surface finishes? HASLIt is widely available and very economical. The board is dipped in molten solder and then leveled off with a hot air knife. If you’re using through-hole or larger SMT components, HASL can work well. However, if your board will have SMT components smaller than 0805 or SOIC, it is not ideal. A HASL surface finish offers high-quality solderability and accommodates multiple thermal cycles while also being one of the more affordable options. HASL finishes are created by dipping the board into a tin and lead or tin and nickel solder and holding it there for some time. Once the PCB is removed, hot bursts of air called air knives remove the excess finish. HASL finishing allows for a large processing window, but various factors can affect its evenness and therefore its solderability. T Lead-free HASLThe Lead Free Version (LFH) of HASL PCB finish became the most frequently considered surface finish next to immersion gold early in the process of safer finish alternatives. So, why didn't lead free HASL become the new standard instead of simply becoming a hassle for manufacturers? Due to the complicated nature of applying a LFH finish, some circuit board manufacturing facilities may need to outsource this process. ENIGThe ENIG is a common acronym that stands for Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold. As the hot air solder leveling, it is also a surface finish of the printed circuit board industry. The ENIG got its name because it comprises electroless nickel plating, which is coated with a slim layer of immersion gold. This type of finish involves a two-layer metallic coating; it consists of electroless plating that is covered with a thin layer of immersion gold, the function of the immersion gold is to safeguard the nickel from oxidizing during storage, and the nickel functions more like a barrier to the copper and a surface on which the components are soldered. OSPAn OSP surface finish is an example of an organic PCB finish. There are no toxins involved in the process, making it environmentally friendly while still retaining its protective and anti-corrosive properties. Because of the absence of harmful chemicals, OSP boards are also RoHS compliant. This water-based finish provides a flat surface for attaching additional PCB components, and like the HASL process, it is cost-effective. Immersion TinImmersion Tin is the least expensive of all types of coatings. It is very economical; however, it does come with certain shortcomings. One of the main drawbacks of immersion Tin is, once you deposit the tin onto copper, it will begin to tarnish. This also means if you wish to avoid low quality solder joints, it is imperative to do your soldering activity within 30 days. Immersion silverImmersion silver is a RoHS compliant finish available on any PCB configuration, at no additional cost. Immersion silver is less expensive than Electroless-Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG); safer than immersion tin (for the environment); easier to use than Organic Solder Preservative (OSP); has a more level (planar) surface than hot air surface leveling (HASL); well suited to lead-free assembly techniquesWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/10/2021 09:26
Be the 1st: PCBBUY Launches Sakura Pink PCB
On August 24, PCBBUY officially launched "Sakura Pink" ink, which is the first time in the PCB industry to apply pink to products. As an intelligent factory specializing in 1-12 layers PCB sample making and small batch production and processing, PCBBUY pioneered the trend of "Sakura Pink" in the electronics industry. Once the new products were launched, they quickly became a hot spot in the industry.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why does PCBBUY launch Sakura Pink PCB? Sakura Pink ink is the perfect result of PCBBUY factory's research and development, matching color, continuous improvement. PCBBUY combines color research and global user research to come to the conclusion that Sakura Pink satisfies customer's fantasy of beauty and romance, which is also an important factor for the popularity of Sakura Pink on PCBBUY. A cross between nude pink and peach, this Sakura Pink is a refreshing, romantic statement and a gift from the PCBBUY to the engineers. The launch of Sakura Pink ink shows PCBBUY 's full sincerity. While launching new products, it also launches preferential activities to strive for more benefits for users. It is worth noting that high quality is still the highlight of PCBBUY, in terms of raw materials, PCBBUY still uses Taiyo and Guangxin ink, beautiful products and fully guarantee the excellent performance of the circuit board. PCBBUY has driven by innovation with Sakura Pink ink Green is the most widely used color in PCB industry, accounting for about 90% of the PCB market. In addition to green PCB, black, red, blue, white, yellow and purple are also common colors. Recently, the Sakura Pink launched by PCBBUY is a major innovation in the industry, providing more electronic technology lovers with a variety of choices, and meeting the expectations and requirements of minority groups for color. Innovation and development is an important concept of PCBBUY's long-term and stable operation, hunting board will lead the industry progress with forward-looking vision, the new Sakura Pink PCB will also create a new trend in the PCB industry. In addition to the difference in color, Sakura Pink and other ink, support conventional technology and special technology. What are the features of PCB solder mask ink? 1. Viscosity and Thixotropy In the PCB manufacturing process, silk screen is one of the indispensable important processes. In order to obtain the fidelity of image reproduction, ink must have good viscosity and suitable thixotropy. The so-called viscosity is the internal friction of liquid, which means that under the action of external force, one layer of liquid slides on another layer of liquid, and the friction force exerted by the inner layer of liquid. Thick liquid inner layer sliding encountered greater mechanical resistance, thinner liquid resistance is less. Viscosity is measured in poors. In particular, it should be noted that temperature has a marked effect on viscosity. Thixotropy is a physical property of a liquid, that is, the viscosity of the liquid decreases under agitation, and soon restores to its original viscosity after standing. By stirring, the thixotropic action lasts long enough to reconstitute its internal structure. To achieve high quality screen printing effect, ink thixotropy is very important. Especially in the scraper process, the ink is stirred, and then makes its liquid. This role to speed up the ink through the mesh speed, promote the original line separate ink evenly connected into one. Once the scraper stops moving, the ink returns to a static state, and its viscosity quickly returns to the original required data. 2. Precision Pigments and mineral fillers are generally solid, finely ground to particle sizes of no more than 4/5 micron, and form a homogeneous flow state in a solid form. Therefore, it is very important to require a fine ink. Are you going to order Sakura Pink PCB at PCBBUY? In the future, PCBBUY will continue to improve its technological capability, continue to innovate and develop, create more forward-looking new products, actively contribute to the development of the electronics industry, and bring more surprises to users.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/10/2021 09:03
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