Gerber file extension
A Gerber, or Gerber Extended File, is a standard file format used in the electronics industry to store and communicate design blueprints. They're often used to convey information regarding manufacturing specifications of printed circuit boards. At their core, Gerber files are like PDFs for electronics manufacturing industry. Have you ever gone through an X-ray inspection in a hospital when you suffered from a fracture of bones? You can totally imagine a Gerber file as an X-ray image of a real PCB. An X-ray image just tells how your bones are organized while a Gerber file indicates how circuits are led in a PCB. In this article, we are going to provide everything about Gerber file extension, please check the content below for more professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How does Gerber extension file work? So how are Gerber files used in PCB manufacturing? In the subtractive method of PCB manufacture, the PCB starts as a sheet of substrate material encased in copper on one or both sides. Gerber files are used to provide a picture of where the multilayer PCB copper should remain at the end of the process. The picture is then used to guide the creation of channels to remove copper from the board to leave only the conductive traces used by the actual PCB. The standard convention is to use clear markings for areas with no copper and black markings for the actual copper traces. But it doesn't stop there. Once the copper traces are marked out, layers like the solder mask and silkscreen cover them. The Gerber file will also have pictures for these other layers, representations of locations of the board's drill holes and even a designation of the board's size. Since Gerber files contain so much info, PCB Houses get up to 9 files - although they're making just a two-layer PCB. Examples include: • The copper traces for the top of the circuit board• The copper traces for the underside of the circuit board• A picture of the solder mask for the top layer• A picture of the solder mask for the bottom layer• Silkscreen imaging for the top layer• Silkscreen imaging for the bottom layer• The coordinates of all drill holes, as well as their properties• An outline of the physical board with all the machining operations marked out, such as scoring, slots and internal cutouts• A simple text README file explaining the uses for all files What is the post-design process of Gerber file extension? Multiple software applications lead to different methods to create Gerber files, including Cadence and Altium Designer. After design, a photoplotter transfers the Gerber to the PCB. The photoplotter prints out each of the files on one piece of film. Each PCB layer and the accompanying solder mask gets its own sheet, so a simple two-layer PCB needs a minimum of four sheets of film - one each for the top and bottom trace layers and one each for the accompanying layers of solder mask. After printing, the photoplotter punches a "registration hole" through the lined-up films. The registration hole is used as a guide to align the pieces of film onto the copper and substrate layers, so the film covers the substrate panel. A photo-sensitive film consisting of a layer of ultraviolet-hardened chemicals then covers the PCB blueprint. Known as a "resist," this film allows the PCB manufacturer to receive a perfect match for the photos on the Gerber file. Once the resist and the layer of substrate have been lined up using the registration holes from earlier, they receive a blast of ultraviolet light that passes through the translucent parts of the film, hardening the photo resist. This indicates areas of copper trace that are meant to remain as pathways. In contrast, the black ink prevents any light from getting to the areas that shouldn't harden so they can later be removed. This process repeats for each layer, including the solder mask layers and the silkscreen layers. When it comes to designing a Gerber file and transferring to a PCB, there are two considerations designers need to consider. 1. Legacy Issues Gerber file format was originally used to drive numerically controlled photoplotters. Today's PCB printers are much more in line with a modern laser printer - something the Gerber file format wasn't built to handle, which causes issues when the files are used with current raster plotters to print PCBs:• Hole data can be absent because the original photoplotters used for PCB manufacture didn't drill holes. Excellon numerical control files can be used to augment the Gerber data, but even this is incomplete - it doesn't differentiate between through, blind or buried holes. Technicians reading the data also have no idea whether they are offset correctly or using the correct scale.• No functional definition or mapping of the files. Nothing in the Gerber file itself tells the CAM technician whether it's a top, bottom or mirrored file. This is why most current Gerber files include a README. 2. Design for Manufacture (DFM) Issues Gerber files contain no way to read the "intent" of the PCB. There are also no protections against a PCB designer building a PCB that is difficult or even functionally impossible to create. One of the most common errors that PCB technicians need to watch out for is missing files, but other errors include: • Putting silkscreen onto the PCB pads• Putting features of the PCB too close to the outline of the PCB• Drilling holes twice, making them unnecessarily largeWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/06/2021 09:12
Conformal coating on PCB
Conformal coating is a type of coating with special ingredients, used to protect circuit boards and concerning equipment from erosion finally to prolong products' shelf life and guarantee Printed Circuit Boards' (PCBs) security and reliability. Conformal coating features high capability withstanding high temperature and low temperature. It'll become a transparent protective film after solidification, featuring excellent merits including insulation, moistureproof, anti-creeping, shakeproof, dust proof, anti-corrosion, anti-aging, corona resistance etc. The reason for the existence of conformal coating lies in the fact that PCB boards possibly suffer from issues like erosion, softening, deformation or mould in practical environment that perhaps embraces chemical, vibration, high-dust, salt fog, moisture and extremely high temperature all of which will possibly lead circuit boards to suffer from defects or failure. In this passage, we will provide you everything about conformal coating on PCB. Please come and check the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why conformal coating is important to PCB? Based on the definition and brief introduction on conformal coating, it is easy to summarize that the key role conformal coating plays in PCB manufacturing process lies in its protective function as moisture resistance, waterproof, insulation etc. The reason why conformal coating is a must-be for PCBs is so obvious but a little complex since it is related with so many elements and a couple of them will be discussed in detail in this part. Moisture Moisture is the commonest and destructive factor causing damage to PCB boards. Too much moisture will dramatically decrease insulation resistance and the value of Q, accelerate high-speed decomposition, and get conductors eroded. It's common for us to see metal parts that have been assembled on PCB board is covered with a layer of green copper just because chemical action just takes place between copper and water vapor and oxygen. Pollutant It's hardly believe that hundreds of pollutants can be found on the surface of printed circuit boards when conformal coating isn't applied on them. Those pollutants are equivalently hazardous to the reliability and functionality of PCBs. Similar with moisture or high humidity, pollutants contaminated on circuit boards can also lead to bad results such as electronic failure, conductor erosion, or even irretrievable shortcuts. Majority of contaminants left on circuit boards derive from residues during manufacturing process including flux, solvent parting agent, clipped wire and marking ink. Moreover, some contaminants result from manual residue when boards are touched by operating people including human oil, finger print, cosmetics and food residue. Plus, lots of pollutants even come from operating environment, such as salt spray, sand soil, fuel, acid and other erosive vapor and mould. Nevertheless, those pollutants can be greatly cut by effective measures that can be made during PCB fabrication process. New technologies can be used to optimize manufacturing process to cut down the number of chemical residues on circuit boards. Rigorous operating principles can be set up and conformed to and operation engineers are trained to be compatible with all requirement of scientific manufacturing. For example, when operators are required to wear gloves when holding boards in hand, no fingerprints will be left on them. When conformal coating is used on the surface of circuit board or components, if negative factors in operation environment take the leading role, conformal coating is capable of reducing or eliminating electronic operating deterioration. As long as conformal coating is able to take hold for such a satisfying time period like longer than life time of final products, conformal coating will be believed to take its full responsibilities. Even though conformal coating is just a thin layer, it is able to excellently withstand mechanical vibration, thermal shock and high-temperature operations. One point should be noticed that it's a myth that conformal coating is capable of making components being with stronger mechanical strength or sufficient conductivity. Fixation of components depends on mechanical method with joint mixture while conformal coating won't help. What is the application of conformal coating PCB? At the very beginning, conformal coating was only used for PCBs belonging to high-tech field. Since electronic products have been increasingly applied in people's daily life, consumers start to pay more attention to the quality and reliability of electronic products. As a result, the application of conformal coating plays an essential role in assisting in effectively improving product quality and decreasing expense to handle breakdowns. Typical application fields of conformal coating or conformal coating PCBs include: a. Consumer Electronics. Conformal coating provides protection for circuits serving for home appliances so that they can defeat the following issues: • Water and Detergent (washing machine, dishwasher, sanitary products, outdoor LED)• Bad External Environment (monitor, security and fireproof alarm systems)• Chemical Substances (air conditioner, dryer)• Contaminants in Office and Home (computer, microwave oven) • Others b. Automotive Industry. Electronic systems have been constantly called for so the application of conformal coating can meet the fundamental demands in terms of long-term reliability of automotives. Automotive industry calls for conformal coating in order to keep from the following hazards: gasoline vaporization, salt fog or brake fluid. c. Aerospace. Due to specificity of application environment, aerospace environment sets extremely rigorous needs for electronic device, which is especially true when rapid compression and decompression are concerned. Thus, pressure stability of conformal coating has received wide applications. d. Navigation. Both fresh water and salty sea-water tend to cause damage to the circuits in the sailing equipment. The application of conformal coating can protect equipment on the surface and below the sea water on the largest extent. e. Medical Care. Conformal coating is capable of protecting electronic devices from erosion that may be led by external chemical agent or special application environment so that they can run consistently and smoothly.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/05/2021 17:53
Metal core PCB
A metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB) also known as thermal PCB, incorporates a metal material as its base as opposed to the traditional FR4, for the heat spreader fragment of the board. Heat builds up due to some electronic components during the operation of the board. The purpose of the metal is to divert this heat away from critical board components and towards less crucial areas such as the metal heatsink backing or metallic core. Hence, these PCBs are apt for thermal management. In a multilayer MCPCB, the layers will be evenly distributed on each side of the metal core. For instance, in a 12-layer board, the metal core will be at the center with 6 layers on the top and 6 layers at the bottom. MCPCBs are also referred to as insulated metallic substrate (IMS), insulated metal PCBs (IMPCB), thermal clad PCBs, and metal-clad PCBs. In this article, we will be using the abbreviation MCPCB to avoid ambiguity.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why to choose metal core PCB？ Accumulation of too much heat in printed circuit boards lead to malfunctions in the devices. Electronic devices that generate a considerable amount of heat cannot always be cooled using conventional fans. Conductive cooling through metal core boards is an ideal option. In conductive cooling, the heat is transferred from one hot part to a cooler part by direct contact. This works well since heat constantly seeks to move to any object or medium that is cooler. What are the applications of metal core PCB？ MCPCBs are most widely found in LED lighting technologies. Some of the popular applications are: · LED – Backlight unit, general lighting· Automotive – motor control for Electric/Hybrid cars· Motor drives· Solid-state relays· Power supply devices – voltage regulators, switching regulators, DC-DC Converters· Solar panels, Photovoltaic Cells· Motion control What are the advantages of metal core PCB？ These boards possess the ability to integrate a dielectric polymer layer with high thermal conductivity for lower thermal resistance. · The higher the conductivity of the material, the faster the heat transfer.· The metal boards can be etched to control heat flow away from components· Boards with aluminum, tend to be lighter in weight than ceramics.· Metal substrates are long-lasting and are more conductive than epoxy products.· Metals are non-toxic and are recyclable.· Implemented in high vibration applications. The components don’t fall off since the core reduces the vibration. What are the types of metal bases utilized in metal core PCB？ Aluminum substrate – The aluminum printed circuit boards offer good heat dissipation and heat transferring ability. Since they are light in weight, the aluminum core PCBs find their purpose in LED lighting, audio frequency apparatus, and communication electronic equipment. Here, the thickness of the core ranges between 40 mils and 120 mils, with 40 mils and 60 mils being the most commonly used. Characteristics of the MCPCB with Aluminum substrate are as given below: · Aluminum thickness: 2mm to 8mm· Thermal conductivity: 5W/(mK) to 2.0W/(mK) (Watts per meter Kelvin)· Peeling strength: >9lb/in· Solder resistance: SF: 288℃, >180 sec.· Breakdown voltage: >3000V· Dielectric loss angle: 0.03· Flammability: UL 94V-0· Panel size: 18” x 24” Copper base (copper core or heavy copper) – The copper core boards feature better performance than aluminum. But customers generally choose aluminum since copper is relatively expensive. Also, copper cores are heavier and involve a tough machining process. Copper also corrodes easier than aluminum. Plated through holes in MCPCB A major factor to keep in mind during the design process of an MCPCB is to minimize the use of plated through-hole components. Instead, implement SMT components. Since the bottom layer is a metal, PTH or NPTH with conductive component leads inserted to it will lead to a short. If PTHs are implemented, then do remember to isolate the metal from the through-hole. To achieve this, the metal core is drilled approximately 40 mils to 50 mils larger than the plated through-hole. Later, these holes are filled with non-conductive epoxy filler and then pressed. After pressing the metal core, the remaining filler compounds are removed from the surface. Following this, the boards are prepared for the lamination with the inner layer cores. Right after lamination, the plated through holes are drilled and the rest of the process follows as per the standard manufacturing protocol. Unlike the standard LED PCBs which require vias under the components for heat dissipation, the MCPCBs eliminate the necessity of these kinds of vias since the metal core performs the heat dissipation. Hence, this makes the work easier for the manufacturers as the drilling process is kept minimal. After this process, if it’s a 1-layer MCPCB, the electroless plating process is bypassed and proceeds straight to circuit imaging. Hereafter, the metal core boards follow the same procedure that a standard FR4 board would follow.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/04/2021 18:09
More electronics components with fine-pitch IC packaging have been assembled on PCB, especially BGA (ball grid array) and CSP (chip-scale package) components. There are lots of challenges of BGA soldering. In this passage, we will focus on the topic and you could check the content we provide for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the reasons of BGA soldering defects? Incorrectly-Picked Tg and Td of PCB Substrate Material During the process from lead manufacturing to lead-free manufacturing, reflow soldering and wave soldering temperature has to rise up due to SMT (surface mount technology) assembly requirement. Some people simply believe it OK that substrate material with high Tg (glass transition temperature) is selected for PCB board. They just think that it's essential to manage and control Z-axis expansion. The primary aim is to stop delamination from taking place of thick circuit boards and 14-layer or more PCBs and to stop cracks from occurring to PTH (plated through hole) because a large extent of Z-axis expansion of PCB tends to lead PTH hole wall to break during reflow or wave soldering. Nevertheless, Tg fails to defeat cracks generated during lead free process unless Td (temperature of de-composition) is considered to totally solve PCB cracks issue. Three levels of Td are regulated in IPC concerning PCB substrate material: 310°C, 325°C and 340°C. In conclusion, during the process of substrate material determination, the higher Tg and Td are, the better. But PCB fabrication cost is an essential consideration based on which substrate material with agreeable Tg and Td should be picked up. Insufficient Gel Content in Prepreg Insufficient gel content in prepreg used on external layers and between internal layers tends to lead copper foil to generate bubbles under high temperature. Unsuitable Copper Profile Selection Generally, ordinary profile is classified into three categories: standard profile, lower profile and very lower profile. Standard profiles contain no regulations on copper sheet because adhesiveness is high but too high profile tends to cause bad etching, which further reduces stability of line width and impedance control. Lower profile regulates that maximum Profile SPEC is 0.4mil (10.2μm). Up to now, lower profile has been leveraged by most PCB manufacturers. Very lower profile regulates that maximum Profile SPEC is 0.2mil (5.1μm), which is generally only leveraged in multilayer PCB fabrication with special fine line requirement such as 2mil trace width. Low-Performed PCB Lamination Whenever low-performed PCB lamination takes place, insufficient melanism or brownization will lead to bad adhesiveness. Low-Performed Solder Mask Developing or Surface Finish Low-performed solder mask developing or surface finish will cause soldering defects. For example, surface oxidation tends to be generated when OSP film is too thick or too thin, receives unsuitable pre-process or goes through too long holding time. Too Small BGA Pad Size During the design phase, when BGA pad size is too small, it takes place possibly due to over etching or absence of compensation value of etching factor. Insufficient Process Control • During stencil design phase, four corners and each side of BGA component should be 1mil to 2mil larger than those of pad. Stencil opening size should be designed based on specs of BGA components including pitch, soldering balls on BGA and ingredient of soldering balls. • During the process of printing, support pin shouldn't be against BGA to stop fake soldering and pillow effect from taking place due to contamination of BGA pad. Furthermore, especially much attention has to be paid to printing scraper pressure and printing quality control. • Wafer positions of pickup BGA, component thickness setting and pressure amount of pickup should be emphasized during mounting stage. • There are more opportunities for cracks during IR reflow and special attention has to be paid: a. During the process of double-side PCB fabrication, PCB deformation degree has to be considered. Fixtures can be used during reflow soldering and substrate of fixtures has to be carefully considered for its possible shrinking due to high temperature and cooling. b. Incoming BGA components have to be carefully inspected to see whether sinking does take place on soldering balls. Moreover, alloy ingredient of soldering balls and compatibility between Z-axis expansion of substrate material of BGA and PCB board.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/04/2021 08:58
PCB embedded components
Embedded technology plays an active role in shrinking interconnect path between components and reducing transmission loss. In order to explore a better solution, some designers consider embedding components such as inductors, resistors and capacitors into the internal part of PCB board so that high density and miniaturization of electronics products can be obtained. In this passage, we will provide you everything about PCB embedded components. Please check and read the content below for more information about it.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the types of PCB embedded components? • Embedded Resistors and Capacitors Different fabrication technologies are available for component embedment. When it comes to embedded resistors, material with high resistance is first applied; nickel-phosphorus nickel-coated substrate material is then used; next, ceramic thick film pre-burning method or LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) is leveraged. Finally, all kinds of planar resistors with different resistance can be fabricated. A better method of embedded capacitor fabrication is direct lamination of polymer in metal sheets. Embedded capacitor fabrication technologies include dielectric membrane application, thick or thin film dielectric generation and high temperature firing thick membrane application with high dielectric constant. Based on the introduction above, PCB manufacturers mainly place resistors and capacitors on the surface of internal layer of PCB board by etching or printing. Then they are embedded into internal board through lamination and multi-layer PCB fabrication technology. Component embedment replaces passive component soldering on PCB board surface with component assembly and tracing freedom dramatically rising. • Embedded Inductors Inductors embedment is shape formation like spiral or bending through etching or copper plating or spiral multi-layer structure formation through through-hole between layers. Up to now, high-frequency module is most widely applied. PCB manufacturers place inductors on the internal layer of PCB board through etching or printing based on internal fabrication technology of a multi-layer circuit board. Among inductors are inductors containing magnetic core. This type of inductors holds magnetic cores and rounding coil with which AC magnetic field energy is stored in DC/AC with corresponding current functions implemented. Magnetic cores can be either inlaid or embedded while coil can only be designed in via. Inductor embedded products primarily come in two types: solidly embedded inductor and hollowly embedded inductor. The former is fixed into PCB with embedded inductor laminated by peripheral prepreg. The latter vibrates with the movement of PCB with embedded inductors inside circuit board. • Embedded Thermal Copper Blocks Constantly shrinking of electronic product volume and increasingly higher density has made thermal dissipation of electronic products a huge challenge of industrial design. Up to now, leading thermal dissipation methods include PCB fabricated with metal as substrate, metal base soldering on circuit board and through-hole with conductive paste filled in. The first two types lead to a large consumption of metal material and are suitable for single-side PCB fabrication. The rest of methods feature so complicated processes and thermal dissipation fails to meet demands called by design. Copper blocks embedment defeats the issue of high cost and can effectively solve thermal dissipation problem. Leading types of thermal dissipation include:a. Copper Block Penetration. Thickness of embedded copper block is equivalent to that of finished board. Copper block goes through top and bottom layer.b. Semi-Embedded Copper Block. The thickness of embedded copper block is smaller than that of finished board. One side of copper block remains at the same height with bottom layer while the other side remains at the same height with one internal layer. What are the difficulties of PCB embedded components? • Embedded Resistors and Capacitors Resistor-embedded products derive most from resistor embedment through etching receiving relatively wide applications. Leading materials for resistor embedment widely accepted by industry are Ni-P alloy and Ni-Cr alloy whose performances are different and that call for different etching solutions. Up to now, the leading problem faced during the process of resistor-embedded material etching is how to control resistance and corresponding tolerance, that is, line compensation of resistor's position, which becomes especially significant when it comes to resistor materials with low square resistance because etching will bring forward more influence to resistance. Embedded capacitors are a type of capacitance materials that can be embedded into PCB board. Because this type of materials features high capacitance density, it plays a role as decoupling and filtering in power supply system, which then further reduces free capacitance. This type of material is capable of improving electronic products' performance and decreasing circuit board size. The primary difficulty for capacitor embedded electronic products is relatively thin dielectric of embedded material. As a result, tracing and etching has to be completed in single side. • Magnetic Core Component Embedment a. Milling Tank Control. After material cutting for PCB board, a circular tank should be milled out on core board.b. Complete Magnetic Core Lamination with Gel Fully Filled. Prior to PCB lamination, magnetic core is placed in the milling tank, which needs to consider complete magnetic core lamination with gel fully filled. Lamination structure and layout mode should be monitored.c. Laminate Structure Design. Two design methods are available for lamination structure design of magnetic core embedded PCB: application of magnetic core during lamination and magnetic core lamination.d. Lamination Layout Mode. To stop magnetic core from falling off, magnetic core side should be upwards during layout and to stop magnetic core from breaking with stress concentrating, crash pad should be used during layout.e. Plated Through Hole Manufacturing around Magnetic Core. To guarantee that drilling won't damage magnetic core and stop short circuits from taking place after plating, the secure distance between holes and magnetic core should be at least 0.2mm during design phase. • Electronic Products with Copper Blocks Embedded a. As far as copper block penetration-type embedment, milling tank size control should be equivalent to that of magnetic core embedment.b. For products with copper blocks semi-embedded, depth of milling tank should be focused on.c. When it comes to connection between copper blocks and prepreg, one side of copper block should be brownized.d. Lamination Layout. Copper block should be placed upward to stop copper blocks falling down. Crash pad should be used during lamination layout to stop defects from occurring to gel absence. The implementation of component embedded technology is one of essential solutions to power module miniaturization and development demand towards miniaturization and multiple functions of electronic products. PCB surface area can be greatly optimized with capacitors, inductors and resistors embedded into internal PCB. Furthermore, copper block embedded products can both effectively reduce cost of high-frequency products and improve thermal dissipation performance.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/03/2021 17:32
Plugged via in PCB
During the PCB manufacturing process, via process is pretty important to affect the quality and performance of the finished boards. Via holes play a role in contributing to electrical connection between layers of PCB. In this passage, we are going to talk about the details of plugged via. Please check and read the content below to learn more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the introduction of plugged via？ Manufacturing process of solder mask plugging for via holes usually contains via plugging, solder mask application on PCB, prebaking, exposure, developing and curing. The manufacturing process is so long and hard to control that product quality can be seldom guaranteed. Compared with ordinary solder mask application technology, solder mask plugged via manufacturing shares equivalent procedures except silkscreen printing and post-curing. Thus, the essential point to optimize solder mask plugged via manufacturing process lies in reasonable monitoring and management in terms of silkscreen printing and post-curing. Silkscreen printing for solder mask plugged via primarily comes in two ways: aluminum sheet and silkscreen. The advantages of aluminum sheet include: small-scale deformation and accurate alignment in silkscreen printing while it features longer procedure and relatively a low manufacturing efficiency. Silkscreen printing refers to the process during which solder mask oil flows into via hole through silkscreen printing. What are the functions of plugged via？ Solder mask plugging in via holes features the following functions: a. It is capable of stopping tin on PCB board from going through via holes and being exposed on component surface during wave soldering after components are mounted on circuit board. b. It is capable of effectively defeating the issue of flux that is usually residual within via holes and further improving products' security. c. Vacuum negative pressure state is formed on tester after components assembly. d. It is capable of prohibiting solder paste on the surface flowing into via hole with empty soldering created. e. It is capable of stopping solder balls from being generated within via holes and further stopping short circuits from being generated by tin ball ejection during reflow soldering. What are the common issues of plugged via？ Most commonly-seen issues in solder mask plugged via manufacturing process include: a. Solder mask plugging features bad fullness with copper exposed at via edge. b. Flatness isn't achieved at via holes with solder mask plugged and solder mask oil is uneven at BGA package. c. Aperture solder mask oil suffers from bubbles and peel off after the application of HASL (hot air solder levelling) surface finish. What are the advantages and disadvantages of plugged via？ For PCB designs that require to transfer high amount of heat or current from one side of the board to another, conductive via plugging is a handy solution. It can also be used to dissipate excessive heat generated underneath some components. The metallic nature of the fill will naturally wick heat away from the chip to the other side of the board in many ways like a radiator. Advantages: · Heat sink or transfer where other conventional methods are impractical e.g. underneath the chip component.· Increased current carrying capacity due to higher thermal conductivity (between 3.5 to 15 W/mK) of the conductive material. Disadvantages: · High instability of copper pad and copper plating inside the via hole barrel. This occurs due to the difference in CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) value of conductive material and laminate surrounding it. When the PCB goes through thermal cycles, metal will heat and expand more rapidly than surrounding laminate, which can cause a fracture between pad and via hole barrel and lead to an open circuit· Thermal conductivity is not too high (compared to electroplated copper that has thermal conductivity of more than 250W/mK) so it is possible to add a few more vias and avoid this process to more reliable non-conductive via plugging· More expensive than non-conductive via plugging· Not in high demand so minimal manufacturers can supplyWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/02/2021 17:36
Bluetooth circuit board
You can find the Bluetooth circuit board inside your smart phone and other Bluetooth-enabled devices. However, before we dive into the details of the Bluetooth circuit board, let us take a while and discover how Bluetooth technology works. In this passage, we will talk about the Bluetooth PCB knowledge. If you are curious about it, please check and read the content below for more professional information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the working principle of Bluetooth PCB? Bluetooth is a form of communication that utilizes radio frequency to connect with different devices. It can operate at 2.4 GHz frequency and is similar to the other wireless communication forms, such as Wi-Fi. One master Bluetooth device can remotely connect to 7 other Bluetooth-enabled devices. The paired devices exchange information serially with the master Bluetooth device. The interaction between the paired devices can be done through the master Bluetooth device, which acts as a facilitator. Bluetooth frequencies have a range of 1 cm to 100 meters, and each connection needs approval from the devices using unique codes. Bluetooth devices can reduce energy consumption by staying idle when there is no active exchange of information. The Bluetooth circuit boards are the main force driving wireless headsets, remote controls, wireless speakers to IoT (Internet of Things) applications. They are two-layered PCBs but have only a single plate. You will find the layers on both sides of the leaves. What are the components of Bluetooth PCB? A Bluetooth circuit board also contains a minimum of 2 inductors, which can fine-tune the antenna's impedance to improve the reception and sending of information. The modules have 4 IO pins: the State, Enabled, communication, and power supply options. You can also find multiple resistors, diodes, and capacitors placed on the Bluetooth circuit board. Apart from the above components, other parts such as chips, voltage regulators, and the crystal-based clock can also be found. The Bluetooth circuit board requires careful attention while assembling, especially with the antennae for its proper functioning. What are the types of Bluetooth PCB? Bluetooth boards exist in the devices and devices we use every day without careful consideration. Anything that uses a wireless connection can be using Bluetooth radio frequencies even without your knowledge. So let us go over some typical applications of Bluetooth circuit boards. Wireless Headsets and Earphones Fancy listening to music on the go without the hassle of wires messing up? Most wireless headsets and earphones use Bluetooth technology for the transmission of audio and voice signals. The Bluetooth circuit board is the silent performer enabling the connection between your audio device and your headset, making you listen to your favorite songs.You can also talk over the Bluetooth connection using voice signals courtesy of the Bluetooth PCB. Cordless Keyboards and Mouse An impressive number of wireless keyboards and mouse relies on Bluetooth circuit boards to connect to your computer and help you do your work. Earlier wireless connections were made over infra-red frequency, but Bluetooth is a far more superior alternative used these days.Even printers, scanners, and other computer peripherals can be connected using Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth SpeakersBluetooth speakers are a fad these days, and everybody is carrying one. The wireless speakers have an inbuilt Bluetooth circuit board as a part of the main circuit board responsible for syncing with your audio player or smart phone. Multimedia TransferWe don't think twice before transferring songs or videos between devices over a Bluetooth connection. All such methods send out and receive multimedia content, and other files are equipped with a Bluetooth circuit board. The smart phone you are using also has a Bluetooth circuit board, which lets it play songs through a wireless speaker or headset and transfer files and movies from one phone to another. Automatic SynchronizationBluetooth connection is the spinal cord of any device which has to do with IoT. This new technology creates a bright world by connecting everything and giving you control over it. For example, you may pick up the temperature of the machines in a factory on your smartphone over a connection established over Bluetooth frequency. Such devices use Bluetooth circuit boards for automatic synchronization and exchange of information between different touch points.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/02/2021 17:26
Modern electronics have come a long way, with a technique developed about 500,000 years ago. We are not talking about the invention of silicon that goes back even further, a couple of billion years. We mean the creation of engraving, "a practice used to incise a design on a hard and flat surface by carefully cutting accurate grooves into it." In this passage, we will focus on PCB printer and you could check the content below for more professional information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the development of PCB prototyping? You may know that the conventional Process entails outsourcing your PCB prototyping to your supplier. That said, thanks to the invention of PCB printers, a majority of companies now have the chance to develop prototypes on their own. The PCB printers are capable of making PCBs without the need for engraving. They achieve this by squirting a particular type of ink called conductive ink on a flat and hard surface. You will be glad to know that work is now in progress. Printers that can easily print electronic circuits rather than circuit boards are under development as well. This effort will help us print a simple four-bit micro controller on cardboard directly. Creating smart clothes and intelligent packaging is the goal here. What are the types of PCB printer? PCB 3D printer PCB printers utilize dielectric and conductive inks to generate PCB from scratch, and a few of them can apply solder paste and application components. That is what makes them an excellent choice for a one-stop and hassle-free prototyping solution at your facility. With the rise of 3D printers, there are endless possibilities for both rapid prototyping and home production. That is because you could quickly develop any model with the use of a 3D program. Then, you can print the design in 3D with ease. Create Models in your HomeEven using a conventional 3D printer, you may practically create any model in a simple 3D modeling program and then print the model out within the comfort and convenience of your home. Diode LasersYou should know that diode lasers, which are compact and small, have a comparatively low power output than most CO2 lasers on the market. That said, it is okay for our purposes. At every stage of new product development, engineers and electronics designers need to get prototype boards ready for testing purposes.Keep in mind that the current standard that involves subtractive manufacturing when it comes to PCBs is often a multi-stage process that is both material and labor-intensive and is, as a result, often outsourced. How PCB 3D printers can help? However, PCB 3D printers bring together precision inkjet deposition printers, sophisticated software, and advanced nanochemistry, capable of satisfying the needs and requirements of rapid prototyping. Also, it can considerably cut down the time spent on prototyping from several weeks to hours. And the good news is that it is true even for the most intricate and complex PCBs. These printers can also help save considerable money and sometimes even allow you to design and create models, which would usually be quite tricky, time-consuming, or even impossible to design and produce. Alternatively, in some cases, it would be cost-prohibitive with the current manufacturing processes. In the end, this can help in increasing the overall quality of your final product and even lead to the production of an entirely new and exciting world of electronics. The possibilities are many. PCB 3D printers can provide high resolution, speed as well as conductivity. Besides, you can have more freedom and creativity to express what you imagine because of quicker prototype turnaround times and more regular iterations. Also, you can experiment with various designs and geometries, which can lead to better products and fewer errors. PCB Laser printer There are many ways to make your very own PCB at home. In most cases, the best and lasting results are generated by using a process called photoresist. A suitable PCB covered with photosensitive paint is meticulously exposed through a mask to the UV light during this process. After that, exposed paint is slowly washed away, and the uncovered copper is etched. PCB laser printer is used to import the PCB layout. It is introduced in the form of a bit-map image and is printed out in a manner, which resembles a paper laser printer. It can cover the entire surface of this PCB. The Process goes line by line. The laser turns off and on to recreate the precise image pattern. You have to ensure the Process where the laser passes over your PCB is fast. It will help you get a decent resolution as well as a short printing time. Keep in mind that this will require a short switching time and a high bit rate of laser information. PCB Stencil Printer Stencil printing is getting popular these days. It is the Process where solder paste is deposited on printed wiring boards (also known as PWBs) to establish electrical connections. The next stage, after printing, involves component placement. Keep in mind that the materials and equipment used at this stage are usually solder paste, stencil, and a printer.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/02/2021 17:20
CCL in PCB
As a type of multi-function electronic laminated composite material, CCL is a type of board-type material composed by reinforcing material (glass fabric, fiber paper, glass fiber paper etc.) that is soaked into resin (primarily epoxy resin). Then they go through baking in order to generate prepreg that will be cut, laminated and coated with copper through high temperature, high pressure and high vacuum. In this passage, check and read for everything about CCL in PCB.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the definition of CCL? CCL plays a role as a leading fundamentally raw material contributing to materials for PCB fabrication, performing four functions including conductivity, insulation, supporting and signal transmission and determining PCB performance, quality, fabrication level, fabrication cost and long-term reliability etc. Constant development of PCB boards and increasing application demands of terminal electronic products gradually bring forward new technological demands for CCL, simultaneously providing driving force to technological development and fabrication technology progress of CCL. What are the types of CCL? Epoxy Resin Based CCLAlthough CCLs come in numerous types, they primarily come in epoxy resin base CCL that accounts for over 70% of all CCLs. Leading categories of epoxy resin glass fiber CCL include G-10, G-11, FR-4 and FR-5; leading categories of epoxy resin paper base CCL include FR-1 and FR-3; leading categories of epoxy resin composite CCL include CEM-1 and CEM-3; leading categories of high-performance and multi-functional epoxy resin glass fiber CCLs include high-Tg FR-4 (Tg: 175°C), lead-free compatible FR-4, high CTI, CAT resistance, high thermal conductivity, FR-4 used for HDI (high density interconnect) substrate, polyimide modified epoxy, BT modified epoxy, PPO modified epoxy, CE modified epoxy glass fiber CCL and epoxy glass fiber prepreg and RCC used for multi-layer PCBs and BUM PCBs. CCL's Requirement on Epoxy ResinAs one of key substrate materials for electronic devices, the key function of CCL lies in insulation providing to traces and electronic products. Apart from performance upgrading requirement due to constant progress of technology, epoxy resin features the following fundamental demands: high purity, low humidity and mechanical strength. High purity is such a significant fundamental demand which mainly concerns epoxy resin alkali metal (Na+) content and chlorine content that are rigorously required. However, most electronic-grade epoxy resin in the modern market has performed excellently enough in terms of alkali metal and chlorine content control. The key issue occurs to hydrolysable chlorine ions. Due to hydrolysable chlorine ion precipitation from epoxy resin, erosion will be accelerated on electronic devices under the action of water, which dramatically reduces electronic products' life span. CCL's New Requirement on Epoxy ResinTo cater to fast development of electronic information industry, electronic products and circuit assembly have to climb to a new stage, which leads PCB fabrication technology move towards microvia, fine trace, high-density tracing and high and multiple layers and brings forward new requirement to CCL in terms of thermal withstanding, low CTE, high dimensional stability and low dielectric loss. As a leading raw material of CCL, epoxy resin also faces more demands of new technology. ·Liquid Crystal Epoxy ResinAlong with continual development of PCB on high density and multiple layers, board space for components to be assembled on dramatically shrinks. Electronic machines lay increasingly higher demands on component power and large power will lead to heat accumulation with electrical performance of components go down or even destroyed. Besides, some base boards require CCLs to be able to work under a high temperature for long time such as LED base board, new-type power module, automotive electronics and high-density IC packaging base boards. Thus, high thermal conductivity is extremely significant as far as CCL is concerned. CCL obtains high thermal conductivity primarily in two ways. One is to add inorganic filler with thermal conductivity to resin component and thermal conductivity is achieved through heat conduction channel formed by tight piling of filler in resin. The other way is to take advantage of resin with high thermal conductivity to obtain its thermal conductivity through thermal carriers as resin's complete crystallization leads to lattice vibration. When the first method is used alone and filler volume exceeds critical volume fraction, although CCL features high thermal conductivity, other performances will be obviously decreased. Thus, resin with thermal conductivity introduction will be beneficial to its thermal conductivity achievement. What is the trend of CCL in PCB? CCL technology has developed for almost one hundred years and its development can never be achieved without the progress of PCB industry. Innovative development of electronic machine products, semiconductor fabrication technology, electronic assembly technology and PCB fabrication technology has been driving the development of CCLs. Essentially, the development momentum of CCLs derives from electronic packaging engineer and technology, which means that rapid improvement on light weight, thinness, miniaturization, high performance, multiple functions, high reliability and IC chip performance plays a radical role in promoting high-speed development on electronic packaging technology. Fast development of electronic packaging technology calls for higher and more rigorous demands and drives CCLs develop towards miniaturization, light weight, high speed, highly thermal dissipation, high temperature withstanding, greenization, CAF withstanding, CTI withstanding, high intensity, high modulus, multiple functions and high reliability.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 08/02/2021 09:24
Today, no new car can run without an onboard computer — and those computers need sophisticated automotive printed circuit boards to make them run. And what are the working principles of automotive PCB? In this passage, we are going to talking about it, please check and read the content we prepare for you to learn more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the applications of PCB for automotive industry? Because there are so many different types of electronic systems in today's cars, the types of PCBs needed for automotive electronics vary greatly. The same car may require flex PCBs, rigid PCBs and rigid-flex PCBs for different technologies. As people demand more accessories and features for their cars that are powered by electronic components, the need for automotive PCBs of varying types is only growing. Car PCB manufacturers need to provide a wide variety of PCB options. The kinds of systems and operations that now use printed circuit boards for enhanced efficiency and safety include rear LED lights and running lights, transmission controls and comfort control units. You can also find car PCBs managing engines, entertainment systems, digital displays, radar, GPS, power relays timing systems, mirror controls and a lot more. Not only do automotive circuit board manufacturers need to offer a variety of types of PCBs, but those who manufacture, assemble and ship printed circuit boards for the car industry must also be able to supply boards with the types of materials that can stand tough use and support long life cycles. This means high-temperature PCBs that allow the PCB to dissipate heat quickly, are crucial. What are the advantages of PCB application for automotive industry? To successfully solve the issue mentioned in the first paragraph, flex-rigid PCB is applied to reduce the number of connectors and solder joints, which has been conformed to for over 15 years. As flex-rigid PCB is applied in automotive systems, the following advantages can be embraced. Obvious Improvement of Product Quality and Reliability When applying flex-rigid PCB for automotives, connectors and soldering joints can be reduced, which can decrease the potential risks leading to electrical failures? Performance and reliability of automotive electronics control systems will proportionally go up with the reduction of connectors and soldering joints. Cost Reduction Due to Manufacturing Steps Shrinking As flex-rigid PCB is applied, soldering of tape cable and assembly connectors will be cut so that cost will go down. After all, all the manufacturing procedure implementation is costly. Maintenance Simplification and Elimination Flex-rigid PCB for automotives is composed by two or more than two pieces of rigid materials and one or more than one piece of flexible material while rigid sections are connected with each other through the application of flexible materials. Each rigid-flex circuit can be accurately packaged into a smaller package so that lots of administration and maintenance will be eliminated. Designer and Assembly Freedom Improvement Flex-rigid circuit designers are only responsible for rigid board layout. As for flexible section, they only need to lead the connection and are capable of freely fixing, slinging or piling, which dramatically eases design and assembly. Up to now, two types of flex-rigid PCBs are available in current market: Semi-flexible PCB Flexible section of semi-flex PCB is made of thin FR-4 material, especially applicable for assembly calling for just a couple of flexibilities. Moreover, semi-flexible PCB leads to low cost. Multi-flexible PCB Made by polyimide (PI) material, multi-flexible PCB works agreeably on applications calling for dynamic flexibilities. Since PI layer can expands into internal rigid section of flex-rigid PCB, multi-flex circuit boards are more applicable for applications calling for gradually dynamic flexibilities. What are the applications of multi-flexible PCB for automotive industry? When the flexible section of flex-rigid PCB is made by flexible PI copper foil material, it belongs to multi-flexible PCB category. Belonging to a type of traditional flex-rigid PCB, multi-flexible PCB has been leveraged for more than three decades. Multi-flexible PCB features a hybrid structure laminated by rigid substrate material and flexible substrate material and interconnection between electrical conductors is achieved through electro-plated vias that will go through rigid and flexible materials. Figure 1 below demonstrates the structure of a two-layer flex-rigid circuit board. Flexible substrate material depends on ordinary PI copper foil material and it is not only laid in flexible section but covers all the rigid section as well. However, it's equivalently effective to lay some structures of PI copper foil in selective section. Since manufacturing complexity will go up once flexible PI copper foil is used in selective section, this method is seldom used generally. When it comes to multi-layer flexible PCBs, because adhesive along Z-axis direction features relatively high CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion), the adhesive will possibly lead to mechanical damage of electro-plated via during stress test or thermal shock test. Therefore, when automotive PCB calls for higher thermal reliability, it's obligatory to avoid using flexible substrate material and cover lay within rigid section since electro-plated vias are usually available in rigid section. Furthermore, temperature reliability issues have to be considered in terms of adhesive and no-flowing prepreg of ordinary FR4 because FR4 prepreg is also a type of substrate material with high CTE. No-flowing prepreg of ordinary FR4 features a Tg that is 105°C that is lower than that of traditional FR4 prepreg by approximately 30°C. Apart from FR4 material that is used as rigid substrate material, almost any type of rigid material is applicable for multi-flexible PCB, including high-Tg material, halogen-free material or even high frequency material. Majority of flexible materials for flex-rigid PCB use PI with adhesive or PI without adhesive that performs better. Nevertheless, PEN and PET material can be also used for simple and asymmetric flex-rigid circuit board structure. LCP (liquid crystalline polymer) material can be regarded as an optimal flexible material without adhesive with high reliability design and high-speed signal transmission design. It's suggested that they should be baked prior to their applications to eliminate humidity due to high humidity absorption of PI. Multi-flex PCB with LCP as substrate material, however, doesn’t need to be baked. Since flex-rigid PCB is concerned, multi-flex circuits can allow a couple of flexible layers to be simultaneously available. Because complex interconnections of circuit are integrated designed, it can be repeatedly manufactured, which is advantageous than cable and wire connection. Thus, characteristic impedance control signal transmission line design can be implemented to replace coaxial cable.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 07/31/2021 09:18
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