After PCB manufacturing, there are several methods programming assembled PCB. Among all the programming methods there are advantages and disadvantages for each one. In this passage, we are talking about the methods, please read the content below and save money and time for your boards. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are the main obstacles in PCB programming? ·Some of the programming devices and fixtures can have a lead time.·When the PCB cannot be determined in advance, whether to support the chip programming software used will encounter a common problem.·Any difference in the part number suffix could result in different voltages in the pin or different timing parameters in the programming PCB board algorithm. Planning will guarantee that you have ordered all the necessary fixtures and confirmed the programming software's compatibility long before the assembly start date has arrived. Otherwise, you will be halting the assembly release date until all the parts are programmed. It can become extremely costly if you want to expedite the PCB fabrication and get stuck in putting the complete assembly on hold. What is PCB programming IC from the factory? The easiest way this can be done is by getting ICs programmed from the manufacturer beforehand. You can also do this from any of the distributors who sell the parts. The Mouser and Gigi Key have offers for programming at a much lower price. They also provide an additional service for the same at discounted rates. When you have the ICs preprogrammed from the manufacturer or distributor, you no longer have to program them at the time of assembly. It will thoroughly remove the necessity for you to get a connector for programming. You also won’t have to imprint on the PCB to manufacture it at a lower cost for a much smaller product. The con to the preprogramming feature is that if there is a production fault or an issue in the change of built, you have to force an upgrade when things are in the middle of production, and then you have zero flexibility. We must reprogram the IC. If there was any programming header and chosen to eliminate that, then it will become necessary. Without that, there is no way to remove chips that have an incorrect code. If you decide the method for programming the PCB board, then this is one option that has no flexibility. However, if you are programming bootloaders, then you can freely choose this method. The requirements change very rarely, so you will be fine paying the manufacturer and distributor's setup fee per unit. What is PCB programming of dedicated headers? It is a reasonably common technique through which you can program a device. It will make sure you can establish a connection easily through the program. It will also allow you as an end-user to have the flexibility to remove and get different software. One problem with this process is that the connector part may accumulate charge, and we need to assemble it. These connectors are some of the most expensive inventories in the list of the things necessary to construct a circuit board. So, whenever you try to do a finalized run, reducing the connectors' cost should be a priority. It can give negative incorrectly at the time of programming and testing. A widely used and known example of this is USB connectors. When in production, changing the functionality over USB is usually better as it is repeatable. What is PCB programming of manufacturing and test jigs? Programming is known to use a jig made of a Pogo Pin. If you are considering doing high volume runs, this is an ideal solution. These contacts are spring-loaded, and they make an excellent electrical connection between the PCBs. We can link the contacts in the PCB to be programmed. The jig is not only limited to programming. It can also test all the different kinds of utilities on the circuit board. The programming jigs can be used to set up to be able to program the complete panel. It only takes one pass to complete the group. It is excellent for increasing production speed and testing. The programming jig issue can be that they are pretty challenging to build, which also makes them quite expensive. It means it can be used only for runs above medium volume, balancing out the cost of tooling. What is PCB programming of universal headers? Universal headers are an option that is somewhere in the middle of the methods we already discussed. The tag connects also creates cables that come with pre-manufactured pogo pins. The specific program is connected to one end of the cable. The other side connects to the contacts of the circuit board. Many other companies have products that are similar to standard pogo adapters. This kind of programming solves the issue of needing a header that is fit for the work and has the requirement to build a pricey programming jig. It makes it ideal for low to medium volume. If you are searching for a reliable PCB manufacturer to custom your boards, please check PCBBUY homepage for more information.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/21/2021 18:15
ESD in PCB
ESD, also known as electrostatic discharge damage, can disrupt SMT assembly, and disrupt the process itself. And ESD will also lead to failure of particular components of the device you are building. It is very important to control ESD during the PCB manufacturing process. In this passage we will provide everything about ESD please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the basic overview of ESD? ESD happens if a static charge transfers from one object or surface to another, with the condition that the second object doesn’t have identical electrostatic characteristics. If you detect ESD, it will happen either because of contact between two surfaces or materials or because the electric field had a breakdown. That is important because electrostatic discharge is capable of endangering components’ performance and causing their failure. We will agree that it is not something that should when you are in the process of SMT assembly, which is why we will discuss how to stop ESD later. How to generate ESD? Take a look at three ways that can generate ESD: • Friction – it is the contact that happens between two objects or surfaces. After you create contact and separate them again, you might notice electrostatic appearing. The simplest example of this is your clothes. You’ve surely felt static electricity when you touched your clothes at least once in your life. The problem with electrostatic in SMT assembly is that it can compromise the device's performance and its components. • Conduction – if the parts of your device have pins and lead made of metal, they have the potential to conduct ESD. That means if they find themselves between a component and an object (body, surface). It will transfer electrostatic. • Induction – some surfaces and objects have huge energy that might touch the electronic parts of your device. That will cause your parts to produce electrostatic themselves. We presented three ways, but it all comes down to movement being what leads to static electricity and the potential damage. What are the features of ESD? Do you know the most dangerous feature of static electricity during SMT assembly, and what can lead to the biggest damage? It is that humans might not recognize ESD at all. The electrostatic discharge needs to be of a certain volume for humans to identify it. Unfortunately, even levels lower than the ones we can notice can endanger an electronic device's components. ESD of low power is more than enough to cause huge damage to the product you are assembling. That low power cannot harm people, and it is so low that they don’t even notice the damage to the components. As for other features, it is vital to note that the ESD starts and ends quickly. It doesn’t take more than a millisecond for the electrostatic discharge to damage the components. It is also important to note that humidity may contribute to ESD, which is why you should consider putting it under control. How to protect SMT assembly from ESD damage? ESD is a sneaky thing, and it can cause damage under the radar, and without you even noticing it. So, what else can you do? The best idea is to focus all your efforts on preventing ESD damage. That won’t be easy because there are steps to take throughout the entire SMT assembly process. The key lies in identifying the most sensitive areas and keeping electrostatic from forming there. In other words, you go to the source of static electricity and prevent it. Keep in mind that you might not be able to stop all ESDs out there. However, as long as you keep things under control, there won’t be any noticeable damage. Start with equipping the entire area where you assemble the product with anti-static features. It doesn’t matter if it is a small private workshop or a big factory. The idea is the same – eliminate as much static as possible, and minimize pleasant conditions for creating static. Experienced manufacturers will place anti-static PVC floors and paints all over the area. It is also vital to place warnings that you can't enter unless dressed properly. Additionally, you want to ensure the floor has no scratches and clean any dust regularly. If you deal with sharp materials, be careful, and put them anywhere but on the floor. If you have the option, use materials for components and equipment that are static-free. That will not always be possible, which is why you should keep the objects with a high electrostatic potential away from the SMT assembly line. An excellent trick that you can use involves getting an item that has a high ESD potential. If you connect it to your components, you will ensure that it handles all the discharge hits instead of the device itself. Finally, keep in mind keeping humidity under control as that is another electrostatic source that you can’t neglect.If you are goin tolearn more PCB knowledge, check for more passages.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/19/2021 17:37
Rigid flex PCB
As is indicated by its name, a flex-rigid PCB is a type of printed circuit board that consists of the goodness of both flexible substrate material and rigid PCB.Reportedly, PCB rigid-flex offers a range of benefits when compared to its counterparts. They are comparatively thinner, weigh lighter, capable of bending dynamically, and can assemble 3D interconnection. What is more, they allow you to exercise a higher degree of freedom as far as mechanical and electronic design is concerned. Not only this, but they are also space-saving and are the right fit for today are compact devices. With that in mind, let us explore some exciting things you must know about rigid and flexible manufacturing. In this passage we are talking about the rigid flex PCB. Please check the content below and read content we provide for you reference.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the main factor about rigid flex PCB manufacturing? Material As is the case with any other PCB, the performance of rigid-flex PCB, to no small extent, is also determined by their substrate material. Typically, a flexible dielectric film made of polyester is in the low-end products. In contrast, more advanced products like those used in the military and aerospace purposes use fluoropolymer and polyimide. If we compare these three types of flexible materials, polyimide tops the list for having the highest dielectric constant. It can also withstand high temperatures and offers excellent mechanical and electrical properties. However, it can absorb moisture quickly and is quite expensive. Talking about polyimide, it also performs well, but polyester offers pretty bad temperature resistance. If you want to operate the product at high frequencies, polytetrafluoroethylene offers a low dielectric constant and serves the purpose well. In terms of adhesive films, the best materials for this purpose include polyester, acrylic, and epoxy because of the high degree of flexibility. They also have excellent adhesion and are relatively resistant to heat and chemicals.But here is the catch. These materials have a significant coefficient of thermal expansion, and this is why the internal thickness of the film should not exceed 0.05 mm. What are the rigid flex PCB types of methods? Rigid and flexible PCB can replace the wiring harness and connector, thereby solving the problem of loose contact and heat dissipation, thereby improving the device's reliability. The plastic part can be bent at any angle, and the entire PCB is excellent in electrical and mechanical properties. It may be produced through a series of rigid-flex PCB manufacturing techniques. We will introduce three types of production next so that you can understand this knowledge more clearly. Window opening method It is a method in which rigid-flex PCB with a core board structure makes the most out of mold punching to get rid of the rigid core in a flexible construction. It is the production of rigid-flex PCB with the help of lamination. The copper foil etching method It is another excellent method used to produce flex-rigid PCB. Here, PCB copper foil structures for making the flexible portion of the PCB. This is an exciting process. The positive and negative depth control method In this process, a blind groove was created in advance on the rigid board next to the flexible board. After proper lamination, the blind grove is combined during molding using the mechanical depth control method. Then remove the rigid plate in the window position, and the flexible portion is exposed. What are the rigid flex PCB processes? The emergence of rigid, flexible PCBs can effectively reduce electronic products' volume and quality by replacing wire harnesses and connectors commonly used in electronic products. Also, the rigid and flexible PCB can solve the contact and muscular heat problems caused by the wiring harness and the connector, thereby significantly improving the device's reliability. Rigid printed circuit board technology and flexible printed circuit board technology. For instance, the flexible substrate circuit and rigid substrate circuit are etched together and then connected by PTH to develop a rigid-flex PCB. Let's take a look at the various technologies that do the job: Drilling technology Here, by making effective use to drill a hole cover and the base plate. We have to check the drill bit quality and other drilling parameters properly. It will help you in obtaining a perfect hole wall. To prevent the nail head from appearing on the flexible substrate, You should choose sharp drill bits and replace them with the number of holes you drill to ensure they are always sharp. In addition to the sharpness of drill bits, pay close attention to the rotation speed and feed speed of the drill. If the feed speed is too slow, this will heat the PCB and produce a lot of drilling waste. Similarly, if it is too fast, it might lead to the production of a nailhead. Desmear When producing rigid and flexible PCB, once drilling, it is possible to provide drilling contamination on the hole wall—the degree to which this contamination depends on the type of materials you have chosen for building substrates. As a rigid-flex PCB is composed of two kinds of materials: rigid and flexible, all the associated materials melt and get attached to the fiber wall during the drilling process. If this contamination is not taken care of in time, it will fail the copper layer plating and negatively impact the binding force between the hole wall and inner layers. Electroless plating Quite predictably, in this method, a layer of metal is deposited in the hole after the chemical process drills it. The hole is then metalized by thickening the metal layer. This is done by initiating chemical oxidation and reduction reaction. In this process, copper ions are reduced to copper, and the reducing agent releases electrons that get oxidized.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/18/2021 17:37
Did you know that PCB electronics has a layout similar to that of lasagna? PCBs typically consist of layers. These are, namely, Substrate or Fiberglass, Copper, Solder ask, and Silkscreen. These layers are fixed in place using lamination, industrial adhesives, and heat. In the design stage, you display the PCB electronics layout using a schematic diagram. From there, the work progresses to convert it to an actual circuit board. Since there isn't much room on a PCB, it is up to you to plan how you will place your electric components. It is vital to ensure that you are making the best use of the available space. In this passage, we are going to focus on the PCB electronics, please check the content below for more detailed information. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the PCB Electronics Characteristics? Through HoleInitially, the through-hole technology was widespread in manufacturing PCB electronics. For this process, different electrical components got mounted in place using leads. It was done by embedding the edges through-holes that were present on the side of the board. On the other hand, you saw the components soldered up on copper traces to set them in place. Surface MountSurface mount technology first appeared in the 60s, but it started making a mark in the 80s. Nowadays, the surface mount is typically preferred for PCBs. It is far more convenient because now the electric components can be soldered directly on the surface of the board. That is because the parts have updated designs consisting of smaller ends caps and metal tabs. What are the Common PCB Electronics Problems? What is plating Voids? Plating Voids occur when there is a problem with the deposition on the board. Faults in sedimentary affect the structural integrity of the hole walls. It prevents the PCB from functioning correctly. Plating voids can form when there is an uneven coating of Copper. That may occur because of rough drilling, the presence of air bubbles, and contamination. The best to avoid the formation of Plating Voids is to ensure that the drilling process is smooth. You can do this by following the manufacturer's directions. That includes the speed of the drill and the recommended number of drill hits. What problems can arise for not using DFM? DFM or 'Design for Manufacturability' is an integral aspect of manufacturing PCBs. DFM analysis software can solve design problems before the manufacturing process. It also makes it easier to spot problems in the structure later on if it malfunctions. Without DFM software, it is hard to pinpoint the issues in a PCB. For one, then manufacturers and designers have to work off of intuition or guesswork. To avoid similar problems, invest in some reputed DFM tools that are available on the market. It is bound to ease the manufacturing process and make it more efficient. What is Inadequate Copper to edge clearance? Copper is a common raw material for manufacturing PCBs. It is highly conductive; however, it is also soft and, therefore, prone to erosion. To prevent corrosion and isolate the Copper, we will cover some other materials instead. However, the problem arises when it is incredibly close to the edge. You will see that it's trim when the PCB is trimmed. That leaves the Copper exposed and causes the PCB to malfunction. The solution is simple; ensure that there is enough room between the layer of Copper and the edge of the circuit board. This way, it does not run the risk of getting trimmed along with the PCB. You can set specific clearance standards using DFM software as well. Why is Acid Trap Worrisome in PCB Electronics? While manufacturing PCBs, PCB etching is a necessary process. Here, you remove the extra Copper from the PCB electronics. You can use several different acidic materials for this purpose. However, more often than not, this can lead to the formation of acid traps. That is problematic because the acid can corrode the Copper tracing and other components of the PCB, rendering it unusable. The best way to avoid this is to ensure that traces are not placed at acute angles during the etching process. Also, it is essential to ensure that there is ample distance between the paths and the vias. What are electromagnetic PCB electronics issues? Electromagnetic issues occur when there are irregularities electromagnetic compatibility and interference. Manufacturers and designers have to make PCBs that minimalize the effects of these energy elements. It is best to increase the ground area of the PCB to reduce noise, cross-talk, and the rate of emission to correct the problem of electromagnetic. Alternatively, you can categorize Electromagnetic Interference by separating the digital and analog components of the circuit.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/17/2021 18:17
PCB guard ring
As one of the important components of PCB, we will dig deeper into one of the components that PCB consists of: the guard ring in this passage. You will learn about guard rings, what they are, what they are capable of, and other parts that work in conjunction with them. Let’s check for more knowledge about it!If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is a PCB guard? Guard rings are one of the essential additions to a printed circuit board. Their presence on the circuit board allows the minimal loss of either current or voltage, depending on the type of configuration of your guard ring. The PCB Guard, attached to a low-impedance voltage source, ensures that a circuit remains closed and no voltage or current escapes. Though the guard ring is only thin copper wire, it is still an essential part of the course. PCB guards operate to ensure no loss of voltage or current to other conductors near the circuit. People often use guard rings on AC circuits, where the guard ring surrounds the surface current with a potential problem or is leaking. Ensuring the current in the guard ring is equal to the current within the circuit, the potential difference is rendered zero and stops the wind from leaking. Due to its linear path, a guard ring can only be used in AC circuits; therefore, they often appear in electric motors and other AC circuit equipment. Another name for these PCB guard rings is driven guards. This term is mostly used by engineers or experts in the field of electronics. Guard rings or driven guards are one of the most critical parts of an AC circuit, especially that of an ECG (Electrocardiography). What is the working principle of PCB guard? While a guard ring is one of the most critical parts of an AC circuit, it is only as effective as the impedance in the course. A guard ring is always connected to a low-impedance voltage source to nullify the otherwise current leakage produced by high impedance nodes on the circuit. Since high impedance circuits allow more voltage to pass than the present, the current eventually leaks out of the course. This particular scenario would be devastating for a precise low- current measurement, as leakage of wind can cause significant variations in the final results. Leakage current is widespread in AC circuits attached to other electronic devices, such as a diode or a transistor, through a capacitor. It makes the electronic devices conduct current, which causes variations in results. On a smaller scale, the leakage of AC will increase the entire circuit; on a larger scale, the course can entirely fail. Due to the potential danger of current leakage, most experts add a guard ring to shield the circuit and avoid leakage current adequately. Thanks to the guard ring's potential difference, which is equivalent to the potential difference of the high impedance node, the resulting current is equal to zero. It leads to precise measurements in both an accurate low-current size and in the electrocardiography process. What is PCB guard trace? Now that you have a circuit ready with a guard ring in pace to avoid current leakage and have taken all of the precautions to reduce thermal-induced EMF, with regards to creating a foolproof circuit, there is just one thing missing, and that is the Guard trace. The guard trace is one of the most critical parts of the course as it reduces crosstalk within the circuit. To understand how guard trace functions and what makes it so important, it is necessary for you to understand the concept of crosstalk and capacitive coupling. The two phenomena – crosstalk and capacitive coupling - are the heart and soul of the guard trace and are the reason for its making. To better understand how both of these work, we will start with capacitive coupling, and work our way up to crosstalk and then on how the guard trace functions. What is the upward cycle? Capacitive coupling is when energies transfer within remote networks or an electrical system through the displacement of current. In an AC circuit, capacitive coupling prevents DC from passing from one course into the other. Capacitive coupling can have either a random effect or an intended effect on your result. That lays the groundwork for crosstalk, a phenomenon where unintentional conductive coupling occurs and affects the circuit. Crosstalk is a widespread problem between audio electronics, structured cabling, and integrated circuit design. What is guard trace purpose? The purpose of the guard trace is straightforward; it prevents crosstalk from occurring or reduces its effects. Each circuit has two or more guard traces at each side of a parallel signal making it very useful in blocking crosstalk from other courses. Guard traces are mostly used in analog circuits, and not many in digital circuits; even small and simplistic boards have multiple guard traces scattered throughout them. Guard traces consist of three different components that help it reduce the crosstalk in a circuit. The first component in a guard trace is the aggressor. The aggressor carries a signal in one direction and current in the other; this creates EMI. This EMI will affect the other trace on the circuit board, which is called the victim trace. Since the victim trace is further away from the aggressor trace, the EMI is significantly lower. However, to also lower this EMI, you will need to add the third and final trace, which is known as the guard trace. It is connected to the VCC and is in between the aggressor and the victim. In the absence of a guard trace, especially in low-frequency audio, crosstalk within the circuit can increase by a magnitude. It shows that a guard trace under the specific circumstances is significant.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/15/2021 18:09
PCB wave soldering
Back to the days when surface mount technology was not entirely developed, "wave soldering" was a very famous soldering technique. Nearly every PCB used wave soldering for the placement of electronic components. Wave soldering is a mass soldering procedure that will permit you to make many PCBs quickly. You will need to pass every PCB over a pan of liquefied solder. There, a pump will create a surge of solder that will resemble a standing "wave." This standing wave showers over the printed circuit board, and the electronic components will get soldered to the PCB. So, the contact between the solder and the lock does the magic. After that, the printed circuit board gets blowing air or water spray for safe cooling. This cooling process will secure the components in their place. Furthermore, wave soldering is usually done in a shielding gas environment as nitrogen usage helps mitigate solder defects. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the PCB wave process?1. Wave Soldering Machine In the market, you will encounter many kinds of wave soldering machines. You can buy lead wave solder machines or lead-free wave solder machines. It is all up to you. However, the main principles and fundamental parts of all of these machines are alike. A conveyor is an essential part that is used during this process. It takes printed circuit boards via various zones. Next, you will see a pan of the solder and pump responsible for generating the primary wave. Furthermore, you will also get a flux sprayer and a preheating pad. Hence, these four main parts make up a soldering machine. The solder in wave soldering machines is mostly made up of metals' mixture. If the machine has leaded solder, it will contain 49.5% lead, 50% tin, and 0.5% antimony. However, in the latest devices, lead-free models are available due to health concerns. So, tin-copper-nickel and tin-silver-copper alloys are frequently used. 2. Wave Soldering Temperature Currently, tin alloys for soldering are regularly using Sn 60/Pb40 and Sn 63/Pb37. Therefore, it is recommended that you should make sure that the operating temperature stays around 260° ± 5°C. Nonetheless, you should also take into account the overall weight of the PCB and the parts. Practically, heavy components can be heated up to 280°C. Lightweight components, which are heat-sensitive, can be heated at a temperature as low as 230 °C. Further, it would help if you also considered preheating and the conveying speed. However, it is best to change the conveying speed rather than tin's temperature because the temperature change will damage the solder joints' quality by affecting the fluidity of the liquefied container. At high welding temperatures, copper will start to dissolve, and this will ruin the quality control of overall soldering.3. Fluxing During the wave soldering, you should apply liquid flux on the printed circuit board surface. You will observe that fluxing will enhance the soldering quality of the electronic components. These components, printed circuit boards, and also in liquid, when stored, are exposed to the atmosphere. This exposure can make them oxidized and thus affects the soldering quality. Flux mainly removes dirt and oxides on the surface of the metal. Further, it also creates a film to stop the air from reacting with the metal surface during a high-temperature setup. Thus, solder cannot get oxidized easily. Nonetheless, it would help if you used the liquefied tin for soldering during the wave soldering process. Currently, the melting point of the SAC305 lead-free solder is around 217 °C. And, the flux cannot be exposed to such a high temperature for long. Hence, if you wish to use change, you should add it before the printed circuit board goes through the tin solution. Commonly, flux can be applied by two means. First, you can use a foaming change, and second, you can add it by spraying. In foaming flux, the flux gets attached to the circuit board, which passes through it. The major downside of this way is that you may observe that change is not uniformly applied. Thus, poor soldering can happen in the areas where flux doesn't exist. In the spraying method, the flux is sprayed through the nozzle as the circuit board passes. The drawback of this method is that the change can be quickly given through the board gaps. And, flux can also directly pollute the electronic components of the circuit board's front. Further, if the change is not processed and only dropped straightly on the board, you can also observe the corrosion of the board.4. Preheating Normally, Preheating before the primary wave welding process begins. It can increase the upper plate's temperature to between 65 and 121°C with a heating rate lying between 2 °C /s and 40 °C /s. You will not be able to get the best soldering results if preheating is insufficient. It is because flux may not be able to reach every part of the PCB. On the other hand, if you set a very high temperature for preheating, "no-clean" flux can suffer. Now, if you are wondering what exactly a "no-clean" change is, we have explained it in the next sub-section.5. Cleaning The cleaning process washes a PCB with deionized water or with solvents to get rid of flux remains. However, there exists a kind of flux that doesn't need cleaning. Can you guess which one? Yes, of course, the "no-clean" changes, their remains after the soldering process, are benign. But, it would help if you were careful; some applications do not want "no-clean" fluxes. It is only because "no-clean" changes can be susceptible to the conditions of the process. Now you know all about the wave soldering process. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/15/2021 18:03
PCB tinning is to cover the untapped copper surface and create a solder mask with resins and paints. There is a better way to do this before copper oxidation and decomposition. It is called PCB tinning. PCB tinning is the process of coating copper traces with layers of tin, which will prevent it from any possible degradation, oxidation, or corrosion. The tin plating will also help mask copper traces while the circuit board itself is being etched. In this passage we will focus on the PCB tinning, and please check the content we provide below for more professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the advantages of PCB tinning？ Doing this simplifies the manufacturing process and also prevents unwanted etching. The industrial method of manufacturing printed circuit boards uses strong solvents like sodium sulfate. Tinning will facilitate this since the risk of corrosion is much lower when a printed circuit board is tinned. Also, the cost of placing copper traces with higher thickness levels on circuit boards with small current areas is much higher than usual. It is another reason why PCB tinning is preferable; it will save money, especially when there is a high existing path bridge. What is the PCB tinning process? How PCB tinning is performed? As the name suggests, PBC tinning utilizes tin. The question is how this tin is used to mask the copper traces in a printed circuit board. The tinning process does indeed use pure tin. However, it also uses a soldered container, a mixture of lead and tin, mixed at a 60:40 ratio. Pure tin and soldered tin are what make up the base of the PCB tinning solution. What is electroplating method of PCB tinning? There are many ways to tin a printed circuit board physically, but the most common method is called the electroplating method. In this method, the circuit board is placed in a tin plating station. When this happens, the tin electrodes are introduced into the controlled current flow. It completes the first coating of soldered tin. After the printed circuit board itself is entirely produced, the second coating of a tin can be applied. To create the second coating of tin, even more soldering must be done. The soldered layers of the container can be deposited either by hand or by a hot solder extruder, which will collect the soldered tin onto the area. It will resemble liquid, which, if soldered correctly, will dry quickly as it is poured onto the copper trace. Like copper, the tin will also oxidize if exposed to outside environments. One of the reasons solder masking is applied is not to leave the circuit board unmasked. Is PCB tinning necessary? Recall that the entire purpose of PCB tinning is to prevent the copper materials in a printed circuit board from encountering corrosion if it is exposed to anything. Consider that any given printed circuit board will be exposed to some outside elements. PCB tinning will reduce the pressure from these external elements and impede the copper inside of the circuit board from oxidizing, if not halt it outright. Some argue that PCB tinning is optional, and they would be correct. It is never a requirement for any given printed circuit board to be tinned. After all, it would operate the same without tinning as it would if it otherwise. The question, therefore, is one of longevity. When a printed circuit board is tinned, it guarantees that the copper inside of the circuit board will last much longer. Additionally, PCB tinning will naturally enhance the current in the tracks of the circuit board and will allow it to operate and perform much more consistently. A printed circuit board without any tinning can be compared to a house with an old and unstable roof. While the top will still protect from outside forces, it would not be nearly as effective as a brand new roof. PCB tinning will provide a "new roof" of sorts for the copper tracing inside of a circuit board. What PCB tinning solutions are made of? The Tinning solution is made up of many materials. Some of these materials are everyday items that can be bought locally, and some of these materials need to be purchased from merchants who specialize in PCB and PCB tinning materials. While not all of these materials are necessary to make a tinning solution, select materials are indeed needed. Because so many variables go into a tinning solution, there are also many different ways to create PCB tinning from choose materials. Thiourea - The essential ingredient for PCB tinning The tin plating solution is made of the silver polishing agent, which is commonly used to clean jewelry. One thing that many do not know is that silver polish contains a compound called thiourea, which is the most necessary agent necessary for creating a tinning solution. Thiourea is combined with other materials to create a tinning solution. Without extracting the thiourea from silver polish, making a tinning solution from scratch is impossible. Thiourea is so active on its own as a compound that it can create electroless tin plates with it that do not require a charge to conduct electricity. Since silver polish can be bought from a typical store, it is possible to at least create the base of any given tin plating with everyday items. Other ingredients that will assist in creating a tinning solution While thiourea is necessary to create a tinning solution, other materials will make creating a tinning solution a much easier process. The first of these is hydrochloric acid, which is also known as muriatic acid. Although this cannot be purchased directly as a silver polishing can, it can be made from household items. Solid, lead-free solder is the second ingredient that can combine with silver polish to create a tinning solution. Soldering liquid is another thing that is not only essential to creating a tinning solution, but it is also crucial to designing printed circuit boards in and of them.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/15/2021 17:56
PCB copper weight
As mentioned earlier, copper is a massive conductor. It is a significant building block of any PCB. It is nearly impossible to create a good PCB that works consistently without correctly measuring copper weight. What exactly is PCB copper weight? A specific set of calculations determines copper weight. It is then applied to the rest of the PCB and connected to everything else around it. When the analyses are performed correctly, the PCB is ready to be manufactured. In this passage we will focus on the copper weight on PCB and provide some detailed knowledge of it, let’s check and read for more information. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the considerations of heavy copper? In the previous section, we learned about the weight of PCB copper. This section will explore how heavy copper can be used to enhance the design of a PCB. Copper thickness is in ounces. Heavy copper can be as thick as 19 ounces per square foot. It makes it a popular option for many PCBs since most of today's electronics are much smaller than electronics in the past. While other sizes of copper are still useable, heavy copper has become the most common and most popular. Heavy copper allows for a lot more options in designing a PCB. Experts in PCB production and design have discovered ways to improve how a PCB looks because heavy copper is very versatile in PCB production. Another reason is that in PCB production, copper only accounts for a small amount of space on an actual circuit board. Because of this, they are using the standard green rectangular board outline not necessary. From this, it is now possible to create PCBs that not only function well but also look a little more desirable than they used to. Because of this, it is now possible to create artwork out of PCBs such as this: All it takes is a good knowledge of copper weights, how to measure and weigh copper, and basic soldering techniques. What are the specifications of PCB copper weight? The previous section was about how heavy copper can be used to improve the aesthetics of a PCB. This section will describe the three specifications of copper weight. There are three "weight classes" of copper. Each of these has its use in PCB manufacturing. Copper thickness is measured in ounces per square foot. It makes sure that other calculations are accurate. Because copper is such a strong conductor that yields predictable rates of amps and mils, it is unnecessary to measure it per square inch.1. Standard copper Any form of copper plating that is ¼ of an ounce per square foot to 4 ounces per square foot is considered standard. For a long time, this was the de facto industry standard for building almost any given PCB, as there was a shallow risk of failure when using it to plate a PCB. Still using standard copper today, and in many cases, if a particular size of copper is not specified, many distributors of materials will assume that the manufacturer desires copper plating of 1.2 ounces per square foot.2. Heavy copper The copper that is 5 to 19 ounces per square foot is considered heavy copper. Over the years, testers and designers have been using heavy copper to experiment with their designs. As mentioned earlier, it is now possible to create a PCB with a heavy copper, and in many cases, it is superior to standard copper. For years, this was considered risky, as most believed that copper was too strong a conductor to be plated onto a circuit board without terrible things happening. Recently, this proved to be wrong, as it is still possible to lessen the amp value of the charge produced from heavy copper by exposing the copper before plating it onto a surface. What results is the ability to create customizable designs of copper plating onto a PCB. 3. EXTREME copper It was not enough for some testers, as they decided to go one further. What if it were possible to possess copper that was even thicker than heavy copper, but could create lasting and powerful charges? EXTREME copper is the result of this. The copper that is 20 to 200 ounces per square foot is considered EXTREME copper, and naysayers over the years have considered this unthinkable to plate into any PCB. After all, even PCBs that were placed inside of even the largest electronics only needed to possess heavy copper plates at most. It was the case until the 2010s, when testers discovered that it was possible to use EXTREME copper in a PCB, provided the charges they yielded were somewhat restricted. These restrictions are made possible by performing something called a "Powerlink," which is achieved by placing at least two copper weights on the same layer of a PCB. While this is only possible to do on the outer layers, it did prove that it was possible to plate EXTREME copper onto a PCB. Now we know three kinds of copper weight classification. The next chapter will be about the copper plating process.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/11/2021 17:08
BOM in PCB
Electronic products are made up of numerous parts. This list of features needs to be created, checked, and even audited regularly if your organization is responsible for manufacturing and distributing any electronic product. It cannot be ignored. In a complete layperson's terms, the Bill of Materials (BOM) could be considered the "shopping list" of any given electronic product manufacturer. The BOM should answer as many questions related to your electronic product as possible, from what they are, how they should assemble, to what kind of staff, and how much team is necessary for the assembly. Let's compare the tech industry to the service industry. They essentially have their version of a BOM, which assists them when they need to order supplies or hire staff. It is no different when it comes to electronic product manufacturers. Although some of the items on their list may be different, it is still essential for them to create one.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How to create a BOM? There are three questions you need to be asking yourself when creating a BOM for your next project: The "when," the "what," and the "how." After discussing these topics with your selected staff and the client who has assigned the project to your organization, you can then proceed with your project. It would help if you thought of an electrical product project like the head chef of a restaurant feels when preparing their restaurant. There are more similarities between the two than you think. Most restaurants need to answer these three questions quickly, accurately, and in the right order. If they do not (and most do not), they usually face dire consequences down the road. It is what happens with smaller-scale restaurants. They approach these questions in an air of panic, not knowing what question to answer first and getting less than complete information on answering these questions. The larger chain restaurants have an established system of answering these questions. The system in question is the same when it comes to electrical product projects. When you have been assigned an electrical product project, you are essentially preparing something, just like the head chef at a restaurant meets preparing food for diners. The only real difference here is that there is no real creative factor involved. There is no "menu creation" for an electrical product. Why is BOM important? Anything that involves electronic products requires a lot of organization and operations when it comes to any materials. The purpose of a BOM is to make sure that everything involved in an electronic product project is operating smoothly. When this process is not organized correctly, a lot of unsavory things can happen. CostsThe creation of a proper BOM can reduce the costs involved in a project. Because there are many materials necessary when it comes to a project, much money goes into them. If a BOM is accurate and organized correctly, it can save a lot of money. One of the worst things that any manufacturer can do is rush to create a BOM. If the logistics list is in a hurry, two things can happen. First, insufficient material is ordered, and it will cost more money to get more materials contained, especially if time is of the essence, and you need the materials delivered quickly. The second thing that can happen is that you can get too many materials, it also means spending too much money. While it is true that you will possibly have surplus materials for the next project, the amount paid exceeds the necessary amount. Staffing and PersonnelOne thing related to cost is employees and people. Having staff to work on a project is something that should be directly determined by what is contained in the BOM. If you don't take the BOM seriously, it can affect employees to hire too many people. The staff members will not be compensated the way they like or also employ a few people, and their production will suffer from being overwhelmed and overworked. How many levels of an ideal BOM? There is no hard and fast answer to this, and it would be foolish to think that there is anything "ideal" when it comes to a BOM. From the standpoint of saving money, the ideal BOM only has one level; this way, fewer materials need to order, and there are not as many procedures involved. From the standpoint of making sure that a project is significant, the ideal BOM has many levels. The more stories of a BOM have the more attention to detail involving the necessary assemblies. However, this could cost more than necessary. Different projects demand different materials and other ways to assemble these materials. Because of this, we need to create a different BOM. Some of them only have one level, and some of them have multiple levels. There is no "ideal" BOM, not if you are interested in saving money. There are a couple of things to consider when determining how many levels a BOM should have, and if you are interested in a successful project where costs are as low as possible, you will consider these How involved are the parts? Sometimes the parts involved in a BOM are complex and require a lot of different aspects to construct. It is the most common reason why there would be a need for a multi-level BOM. A multi-level BOM means that they can micromanage efficiently, and this can save money and time on some of the more complicated operations of a project since it is easier to detect things that go wrong. If the parts involved in a project are not complicated, it would be a better idea to have a single level BOM since there would not be necessary to order smaller materials to assist in constructing the part.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/11/2021 17:04
Blind via in PCB
Blind via links the surface layer of PCB and the internal layers. Another point to note is that blind vias do not pass through the whole board. The surface layer is usually one and is either the upper or lower part of the board. Contrary, the internal layers can be more than one. That is why you can only see blind vias on one part of aboard. The need to link components to the two sides of these complex printed circuit boards should be among your priorities when designing a PCB. Basically, you require blind and buried vias to connect components to various sides of your PCB. The article takes a deep dive into the different vias available, the uses, advantages, and disadvantages.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the features of PCB with blind via? In summary, following are the clear-cut features that you will observe in PCBs with Blind vias: 1. They will have more holes than a traditional PCB. If the PCB is four-layered, the extra holes will only join two layers.2. They will have higher pad density and wiring than traditional PCBs.3. There will be reduced trace space and width.4. During the fabrication process, they follow a slightly complex build-up process.5. They are an inexpensive solution. Amazingly, there is another very beneficial type of vias – the buried vias. In the next chapter, we have discussed it in detail and have compared it with blind vias. What are the applications of blind via PCB? This part will take a closer look at the two primary uses of blind vias in circuit boards. It is essential to realize that you can minimize your circuit board layers by expanding the ball-grid getaway channel. You can achieve that by creating blind vias. Are you experiencing difficulties when penetrating through-hole vias for designing and trace breakout of BGA? If so, try increasing the getaway channels on the internal and lower layers with blind vias. Alternatively, you can use blind vias to reduce your circuit board aspect ratio. Mostly, circuit board BGA components come with various pitches. For example, a 4.00mm radius board contains 0.8mm and 1.27mm pitch BGAs. Remember, the smallest size via hole is determined by both the drill and board aspect ratios. How to make blind via PCB? PCBs with blind vias follow the standard procedure of making multilayer PCBs, only till the drilling stage. They offer extra holes that make a connection between only two layers if the PCB is four-layered. Before starting the PCB designing procedure, decide what build-up are you going to use and check with the PCB manufacturer. If you are someone who considers adding vias ‘on the go’; you may have to face dire consequences. Your PCB space will run out and eventually; you may have to discard the board and re-design everything. Furthermore, it will waste your time, energy and money. So, to save you from these consequences, we will describe in detail how to add blind vias to your PCB. Before going forward, we will mention the basic rules that all blind vias must follow: ·The must begin from either the bottom or top layer of the printed circuit board.·The must occupy an even number of layers, i.e., 2, 4, 6 and so on.·They should never go through the whole printed circuit board.·They can never begin or end at the center or core of the PCB substrate. Recall that blind via in the printed circuit board, with multiple layers, makes a connection between the surface layer and internal layers. However, due to certain limitations, it is a complicated task to drill a blind according to the modeled depth. For good plating or metallization quality, via sizes should be correctly selected The hole depth to hole diameter, H/d value, should not be greater than 1, and 0.8 is ideal value. Thus, the deep vias should have large diameters. Moreover, huge vias also mean that the dielectric gap between PCB layers is also huge. To properly make the blind vias, you would need to first bore the vias in the center cores. Then, make the vias go to the surface layers of PCB. In the end, prepreg assists in stacking together the PCB layers. In conclusion, we will say that you must compare your circuit requirements with the processing abilities of PCB manufacturer. Additionally, PCB manufacturers have often mentioned rules that must be followed to make PCB producible. Thus, it is good practice to learn about the design rules of blind vias, as provided by the PCB manufacturer.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Glossary ⋅ 06/10/2021 17:49
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