What is the difference between reflow soldering and wave soldering？
Reflow soldering and wave soldering are leading soldering technologies for making PCB assembly. We use them to ensure premium quality electronic products. However, some people confuse them with each other and the difference between them seems vague. We will take a brief look at wave soldering and reflow soldering in this article. We will also try to highlight their main differences. In this passage, we will focus on the differences between reflow soldering and wave soldering. Please follow us with the content we provide to learn more PCB professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is reflow soldering? Reflow soldering is a process in which a solder paste (a sticky mixture of powdered solder and flux) is used to temporarily attach one or thousands of tiny electrical components to their contact pads, after which the entire assembly is subjected to controlled heat. The solder paste reflows in a molten state, creating permanent solder joints. Heating may be accomplished by passing the assembly through a reflow oven or under an infrared lamp or by soldering individual joints with a desoldering hot air pencil. What is wave soldering？ Wave soldering is a bulk PCB soldering process used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. The circuit board is passed over a pan of molten solder in which a pump produces an upwelling of solder that looks like a standing wave. As the circuit board makes contact with this wave, the components become soldered to the board. Wave soldering is used for both through-hole printed circuit assemblies, and surface mount. In the latter case, the components are glued onto the surface of a printed circuit board (PCB) by placement equipment, before being run through the molten solder wave. Wave soldering is mainly used in soldering of through hole electronic components. Reflow soldering VS wave soldering How do you know which type of soldering to use and when? It may depend on a variety of factors, such as pad shapes, the amount of time you have, component orientations, type of printed circuit board and more. In some ways, wave soldering is more complex. Issues like board temperature and time the board spends in the solder wave need careful monitoring. Failure to create the right wave soldering environment is much more likely to lead to board defects. You don’t need to be nearly as concerned about controlling the environment when you’re utilizing reflow soldering to fabricate your printed circuit boards. However, even with that being the case, wave soldering tends to be faster and cheaper than reflow soldering. In more than a few cases, it’s the only practical way to solder a board. Reflow soldering is typically used in smaller-scale manufacturing products that don’t require a method amenable to fast, cheap mass production. Keep in mind that you may be able to use both reflow soldering and wave soldering for certain situations. You might reflow solder parts on one side and then wave solder them on the other. Also, you can always manually solder or hand solder PCB components, but this will rarely be a good approach if you have access to one of the mechanical methods of soldering. Manual soldering would only be an alternative to reflow soldering, but reflow soldering is still far superior. What are the differences of reflow soldering and wave soldering？ We can never ignore the difference between reflow soldering and wave soldering because it is important when you are selecting the PCBA services. A soldering modification tends to make drastic changes in the entire assembly manufacturing process. These include manufacturing cost, time to market, efficiency, and gains, etc. Soldering ProcessThe main difference between reflow soldering and wave soldering in terms of the manufacturing process is the flux spraying step. Wave soldering involves this step while the reflow soldering doesn’t. We use flux for promoting the soldering process. It helps by playing a protective role by eliminating the surface tension and reducing the surface tension. Flux only works when we activate it which we can only achieve by intensive time and temperature control. In reflow soldering, flux is present in the solder paste. Therefore, we need to appropriately arrange and achieve the required flux content. Selection StandardGenerally, wave soldering works best for DIP and THT while reflow soldering is ideal for SMT assemblies. However, a circuit board rarely contains only through-hole components or surface mounted devices. That is why we often have to use a mixture of SMT, THT, and DIP. When it comes to mixed assemblies, we first carry out SMT and then focus on DIP or THT. This is because the temperature of reflow soldering is much higher than the one in wave soldering. If we don’t follow this sequence then the solder paste might melt again. This can lead to well-soldered components to fall from the board or suffer from defects. Production CapacityWe use wave soldering mainly for mass production. It helps in manufacturing a large number of printed circuit boards in a relatively small amount of time. On the other hand, we use reflow soldering when we have to manufacture a small number of printed circuit boards. We avail of this technique when we don’t have very tight time constraints. MOKO Technology is the best smart device solution you can ever come across. We have a large manufacturing setup for making PCBs which has the capacity to perform both the wave soldering and reflow soldering. On top of that, we have a large production capacity so we can easily perform any mix of soldering techniques for bulk orders. If you are looking for a reliable resource for performing soldering on your PCBs then feel free to contact us. We are hoping to hear from you soon!Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/24/2021 18:19
How to solder PCB components？
A printed circuit board component is an electrical part that goes into making the entire circuit board. PCBs consist of electrical elements such as diodes, capacitors, fuses, and resistors. For a PCB to function effectively, each component must play its role. If one part fails, then the PCB may fail to function as intended. In this passage we will help you getting into the PCB components knowledge and the process of soldering PCB components. Come and check for the contents we provide for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How to choose the right PCB components? Circuit boards may seem somewhat incomprehensible, but its components matter a lot. The functioning of a PCB depends on its members. So, how do you go about choosing the right PCB components? Here’s what you need to do. PCB designChoose suitable components – For the best functioning PCBs, you need to select the right parts for your board. Go for the best materials that will suit your board. Ensure that your diodes, anodes, and transistors are of the highest quality. Use schematics to plan your projectSchematics are of importance when designing a PCB. With the help of schematics, you will be able to better position. To know where every PCB will fit how to maintain and repair your PCB in case of damage. Required space component sizeWhat’s the size of your electronic component(s)? If it’s too large, then you may require a giant board. Still, you may need larger components on your PCB for better functionality. Consider component footprintYour PCB component footprint has to include important pieces of information. Things such as assembly, placement, and part numbers are invaluable and need to be present in a component footprint. When creating a PCB footprint, make sure that you keep your entire datasheets handy. Also, understand the standard package sizes, and watch for through-hole sizes and locations. Follow acceptable grounding practicesWhen designing a PCB, you need to stick to some grounding rules. Grounding is essential in your design process. Without a stable ground, you may not be able to ensure the passage of clean signals from one component to another. Some essential grounding practices involve leaving nothing unattached, grounding before routing, and minimizing series vias. PCB soldering-choose right componentsPCB soldering may seem to be a straightforward step, but you may end up with low board if you do it wrongly. If you desire to have a good board, ensure that you go for the right equipment. Make sure that the soldering iron and the solder itself are of the highest quality. If you employ the wrong components, you may end up with a printed circuit board that won’t serve you properly. Separate lead from lead-free componentsFor many years, leaded solder has been a popular go-to substance in rework and electronic manufacturing. But in the last few decades, there’s been a growing concern for an environmental and increasing problem with products made using lead. The choice between leaded or unleaded components depends on the size of your project. However, due to the latest government directives, you may have to go for unleaded components. Lead-free components are known for being environmentally friendly and not hazardous to humans. How to Solder PCB Components? Soldering involves using a filler material, also known as solder, to join some metal pieces together. Soldering takes place at relatively low temperatures compared to welding and brazing that require high temperatures. Solder PCB componentsTo solder PCB components, you’ll need the right equipment and a clean working surface. You begin the whole process by placing pieces into the holes. You need to ensure that you place the components so that the legs effectively come out on the same side as the solder pads. On the PCB solder side, make sure that you carefully bend the legs of components a bit. By doing so, it will not fall out if you flip the board upside down. In short, when soldering components on a printed circuit board, make sure that you have the right tools for the job. Work on a clean surface while ensuring that you follow all the steps. Don’t forget to keep all the safety precautions to don’t injure yourself or your colleagues. How to place components on PCB?Placing components on a PCB isn’t a difficult task. First, you have to group the elements by function. Next, you need to keep the details away from the dissipating area. After that, make sure that you place the board-to-wire connectors near the edge. After that, get the orientation of the components standardized before finally making space for copper traces. How to remove components from PCB?Removing parts on a PCB is an easy three-step process. First, you need to inspect the size of the solder joints on the role that requires removal. Next, you need to apply a small amount of liquid flux to solder joints of features you want to remove. Lastly, carefully place a heated soldering iron tip on the board’s component side's lead to remove the part (s).Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/24/2021 18:09
Lead-free solder VS lead solder & Which one is better?
During the PCB manufacturing process, leader solder is one of very popular materials. But recent years, concerns have increased about the health and environmental effects of products containing lead on consumers. Most electronic manufacturers use solder to stick components to PCBs. Whether it is a lead-free or a leaded solder, they all serve the same function. Nevertheless, various devices and use cases utilize different soldering techniques. Which solder is better to use in the electronic world? What are the differences between leaded solder and lead-free solder? In this passage, we will focus on these topics and please check and read the content below for more information. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is lead-free solder? The main reason why manufacturers are shifting to the use of lead-free solder is to eradicate lead from electronic production and waste recycling processes. In the past two decades, the electronic manufacturing world has experienced a dynamic development of alternative soldering materials centered on tin metal. This alternative approach uses materials with properties that are distinct from the lead and tin eutectic composition. Since soldiers are effective at 80% of their melting point, they call for performances similar to the jet engine superalloys. However, solder joints requirements are continually increasing because of the rising density and stress properties from miniaturization. Therefore, lead-free solders need a PCB design, which accommodates the high melting point and anisotropic properties. What is lead solder? Generally, leaded solder is composed of tin and lead. The advantage of using leaded solder is its adequate flowing capacity. It has a lower melting point than lead-free solder; hence, presenting less thermal effects to components. Besides, when the solder cools down, it assumes a brighter appearance than lead-free solder, making it easy for you to detect issues like oxidation. Furthermore, lead solder is cheaper and easier to use than lead-free solder. What are the differences of lead-free solder and lead solder? The use of high quantities of lead in consumer products over an extended period causes harmful effects to the environment and people. Currently, companies have shifted to lead-free soldering to support their social responsibility efforts of protecting the environment. Thus, it is crucial to learn how lead-free solder compares with leaded solder and examine the better option for use. Melting Point Lead-free solder has higher melting point than lead solder. Lead solder has a melting point of 1830C, while lead-free solder has a melting point of 2170C. Now, these are the effects of the higher melting point of lead-free solder: · The higher temperature of lead-free soldering oxidizes the solder quickly compared to the lower temperature of lead soldering. · Like those containing plastic packages and electronic capacitors, some components are negatively affected by the high soldering temperature of lead-free solder. · The high temperature of lead-free solder comes with significant component stress; therefore, low dielectric components are more vulnerable to failures. · Lead-free solder components have several soldering surfaces. Companies often use tin on such surfaces because it is cost-effective. However, the tin generates a small oxidation coat on the outside that can lead to electroplating. Eutectic Manufacturers valued the use of tin and lead because it formed a eutectic mixture. In other words, the lead and tin composition have a lower temperature than the individual metals' temperatures. Although the electronic manufacturing world has not managed to discover another eutectic metal combination, it has invented a lead-free soldering technique that works well. Health Concerns Companies sensitive to environmental conservation state the poisonous nature of lead as their main reason for embracing lead-free soldering. Lead can indeed accumulate in the human body even from small prolonged exposures. Furthermore, lead can quickly enter your body through the skin, mouth, or nose. The paint and gasoline sectors have all gone lead-free. However, solder is among the remaining products that still use it. In an industry experiencing high lead emission, workers are more vulnerable to the dangers of lead as they can quickly inhale it or get it by touching contaminated surfaces. Remember, lead is more dangerous to children. Therefore, take these health concerns seriously wherever you are using lead solder. Cost Leaded solder is cost-effective than lead-free solders. This is because lead is barely a tenth of the tin price, making leaded solder easily affordable. Furthermore, some manufacturers replace tin with silver in lead-free solders, making them even more expensive. Wettability Lead-free Solder has Poor Wettability than Leaded Solder. Low wettability makes the solder joint function ineffectively in meeting the demands of self-regulation ability, tensile power, and shear capacity. Consequently, low wettability causes a high rejection rate of solder joints, especially when you fail to conduct adjustments to cater to this shortcoming. Physical Features Lead-free solder has a negative joint reliability impact. From a mechanical influence point of view, lead-free solder is stronger than leaded solder. Furthermore, lead-free solder forms surface oxides, flux impurity, and alloy deposits that can cause poor contact resistance performance. Therefore, the shift from lead to lead-free electronic production is not a total replacement in electrical and mechanical features due to these reasons: The lead is comparatively soft. You will realize that lead-free production solder joints are harder than lead manufacturing solder joints. This causes heightened intensity and minor modifications, which result in high reliability. Lead-free soldering causes low wettability, igniting more problems, such as vacancy and tomb standing.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2021 18:30
Solder mask colors & How to choose PCB color?
The color of PCB defines the color of the solder oil or solder mask. It consists of lacquer impregnated with pigments that are known for protecting the traces of bare copper. Made from glass – epoxy, the finishing color of PCB is representing the solder mask. One of the main applications of the solder mask is prevention against the short-circuiting of the circuit board. In this passage, we are talking about how to select PCB color when you custom PCB products. Please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the features of PCB colors? There are different types of colors available for PCB boards. The standard color of printed circuit boards is the green solder mask. However, with the advent of much innovation and technological advancement, the color of PCBs is now changing. In recent years the use of other colors instead of green PCBs is on the increase was driven by most of the assemblers. The following are some reasons for choosing different colored PCB other than green: •Using different colors of PCB gives an obvious indicator of the revision changes to make users aware. •Using colors other than green will produce brightness or contract. You need to note that assembly equipment is significant by transmission properties, absorbance, and light reflectance. •Using different colors will help prevent various types of mistakes in a mixed assembly that may occur. The choice of contrasting color types also has the advantage of identifying meetings that are lead–free. The variety of colors used for fabricating PCBs includes white, blue, black, yellow, red, etc. The colors of PCBs are commonly referred to as PCB color codes. Different modern PCB types have adopted specific colors. For example, the motherboards of PC are still fabricated in green epoxy. The colors of solder masks do not create any impact or effect on the performance of PCB. However, with the use of different PCB colors, the board resolution will be other. For example, green PCB resolution is matched using red and blue colors like the yellow and black color with significantly less resolution. It is to be noted that solder masks with clear transparency tend to have high resolution. What are the differences of PCB solder mask colors? If you are up for selecting the printed boards, some parameters require to be taken into consideration. One of them is choosing the color of the PCB solder mask. Though green is the most traditional color being used, other colors like yellow, white, and black, which are also available, do not require any extra charges. As there is a wide range of colors available for the PCB solder mask, the problem is which color needs to be selected. Are there any advantages or disadvantages to choosing any color other than green? Given below is the small guide which is going to help you in choosing different solder mask color other than the standard green color: Green Green PCB board can relieve fatigue regarding visuals. As green does not require enhanced efforts in inspection, workers prefer to use them. Less review of green printed circuit boards leads to a less tiring job. Also, it is reported that human eye sensors are sensitive to green color. It is mentioned prior that the PCB color of green has a higher contrast, making it suitable for identifying the board traces and residues quickly. It has also been seen that the green solder mask is superior to other solder mask colors. The green solder mask consists of different excellent properties compared to additional solder masking colors. This color produces good results with solder mask dams and plays its role in manufacturing integrated circuits. Red The red solder mask color tends to be bold and professional. The contrast present between planes, spaces, and traces is quite good. On the contrary to the green printed circuit board, the contrast is lower. Any magnification is used for inspecting the board traces in case of defects. It is to be noted that silkscreen is known to stand against red background well as it cleans up the flux residues. Though red looks attractive, eye-catching and bold, green is still considered the best. Blue PCB color blue for the solder mask resembles the same Arduino blue color. Compared to red and green printed circuit boards, the contrast between empty spaces, planes, and traces is shallow. In blue solder mask color, magnification is considered necessary and is mandatory for inspecting manufacturing defects. However, it is to be noted that the contrast between the solder mask and silkscreen is relatively high that is the plus point for using blue color. So, if you are using a board with the label – heavy, then the right choice, in this case, might be blue for you. Remember that blue seems to be an excellent choice if you want to match the solder mask color with your Arduino, and you do not care about showing off-board traces. Black THE Black PCB color is tough to handle. The contrast between empty spaces, planes, and traces is lower than other solder mask colors, but it is non – existent. Very powerful magnification is required for the inspection of this board. Inspecting it is nothing more than a nightmare as it needs a tilted angle for casting a shadow to find traces. Another problem with black PCB color is its heat absorption during the process of reflow. As far as cleanliness is concerned, the black solder mask needs hard efforts because the flux stains tend to be harder on the board and eventually require steps to get removed. One of the advantages of a black solder mask is that it works well with the contrast of silkscreen. The difference between silkscreen and pads is pretty much okay. You do not need any lighting or optics to see the distinction as it is visible. Currently, only gloss black is available. Matte black solder mask color is still to be designed for prototypes. White If you think that a black solder mask is the hardest to handle, you have not seen white yet. Experiments show that there is nothing good about a white solder mask. White PCB color exhibits contrast that is even lowest as compared to black. When it comes to inspecting, even tilting it to light does not help in its traces' appearance. Cleaning the white printed circuit board is too hard as hints are hard to be seen. However, the silkscreen contrasts in white solder masks are the same as those found in black color, which implies that they work very well. Keeping in view other parameters, we don't recommend the white solder mask. Yellow It is to the surprise of why designers and engineers do not pick yellow PCB color. The contrast between empty spaces, traces, and planes is too high in the yellow solder mask. It is almost as same as green. So if you have some fantastic routing and your printed circuit board is some hard work of art, then this dark and coppery colored yellow solder mask is the right choice for you. As the white silkscreen is not contrasting well, you can use a black silkscreen with a yellow solder mask. It has been seen that it will create excellent results for your design and work. Also, you will see that the yellow solder mask does not cause any problems with cleanliness. Yellow should be considered along with green and red colors, depending upon its outstanding performance parameters.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2021 18:25
Blind via PCB & 7 main factors to learn Blind via
Blind via links the surface layer of the PCB to the internal layers. Another point to note is that blind vias do not pass through the whole board. The surface layer is usually one and is either the upper or lower part of the board. Contrary, the internal layers can be more than one. That is why you can only see blind vias on one part of aboard.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online.1. What are the types of blind via? There are four categories of blind vias for your information, and we will discuss each of them in detail here. The diagram below shows the different types of PCB vias. Photo-Defined Blind Via PCB You can make a photo-defined blind by coating a photo-reactive resin sheet to a core. The core should consist of laminated traces enriched with planes and submerged signal layers. Remember to cover your photo-reactive sheet with patterns that shield the points where you will make the holes. You should also expose the sheet to wavelength rays to harden the residues on the board. After that, immerse your circuit board in a dying mixture to eliminate any unwanted substance from the holes. When you have finished the scraping process, plate copper into the holes and on the surfaces are to form the board's surface layer. Sequential Lamination Blind Via You can make this type of blind vias by passing a thin laminate piece through the two-faced PCB process. First, you need to drill, coat, and sketch the laminate to outline the characteristics that will make your PCB's second layer. Leave the solid copper material on the other PCB part to act as your board's first layer. It would be best if you also laminated your subassembly with the different board layers. Finally, pass your product through the process of making the surface layers of a multilayer board. Controlled Depth Drilled Vias As illustrated in figure 1, you can make controlled-depth vias using the through-hole via approach. However, you should set your drill to pierce only halfway through the board. You also need to place a pad on the second layer so that the drill penetrates it. Besides, it would help if you were cautious to ensure there are components underneath the percolated hole, forming contact with it. Lastly, you need to coat copper in the percolated hole concurrently with plating copper in the through-hole blind vias. Laser Drilled Blind Vias You can create these vias after laminating all your board layers; you can create these vias before designing and coating the surface layer. Use a laser to remove the copper on the surface layer and the insulating substance between the first and second layers. Remember, you can either use the CO2 or Excimer laser.2. Blind Via PCB: Pros and Cons Pros·The better utilization rate of surface space for top and bottom mounted components.·They present minimal interferences between signals.·Blind vias present better pad density and wiring compared to standard boards. Cons·The blind vias production process has higher demands.·They have a complex manufacturing cycle.·Lastly, they are expensive to produce due to extra processes and equipment.3. Blind Via PCB Applications This part will take a closer look at the two primary uses of blind vias in circuit boards. It is essential to realize that you can minimize your circuit board layers by expanding the ball-grid getaway channel. You can achieve that by creating blind vias. Are you experiencing difficulties when penetrating through-hole vias for designing and trace breakout of BGA? If so, try increasing the getaway channels on the internal and lower layers with blind vias. Alternatively, you can use blind vias to reduce your circuit board aspect ratio. Mostly, circuit board BGA components come with various pitches. For example, a 4.00mm radius board contains 0.8mm and 1.27mm pitch BGAs. Remember, the smallest size via hole is determined by both the drill and board aspect ratios.4. Blind Via PCB Aspect Ratio You can calculate the blind via aspect ratio as shown below: PCB Aspect ratio = PCB Thickness divided by the Diameter of the Drilled Hole. Note that blind vias will minimize your board aspect ratio by decreasing the number of supported layers. Therefore, use blind-hole vias instead of through-hole.5. How to Make Blind Via PCB Circuit boards with blind vias use the necessary procedure of creating multilayer boards up to the drilling step. As mentioned earlier, blind vias provide more holes that facilitate connections between two layers for two-layered boards. Choose your build-up and contact your manufacturer before you start the circuit board design process. It is important to note that you may encounter problems if you try adding vias 'on the go.' Mostly, you will run short of space, and most probably, you may abandon the PCB and start creating afresh. That is a waste of your precious time and resources. Therefore, follow the steps below keenly to avoid making mistakes. But before that, let us look at the rules of blind vias: ·Blind vias start from either the upper or lower layers of the board.·It would help if you placed them on the layers evenly.·Blind vias should not percolate the entire PCB.·They should not start or end in the middle of the board substrate. The hole height and hole diameter (H/d) value should be less than one. Actually, 0.8 is the best value. That means you should assign big diameters to deep vias. Furthermore, huge vias also require significant dielectric gaps. To accurately create a blind via, you need to drill the vias within the central cores. Afterward, let the vias reach the outside layers. Last, prepreg is to stack together with the layers.6. Blind Via Cost Since you drill through just some layers when making blind vias, you will make holes and coat them before combining the PCB layers. That calls for extra lamination processes compared to the single lamination needed in through-hole vias. These additional processes consume more time and resources, making the blind vias production process costly. But, the advantages of blind vias offset the extra cost in many instances.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2021 18:20
Where to order custom PCB？
You may ask if I want to order PCB products with my own parameters, where to order custom PCB？What are the comprehensive guidelines for custom PCB? In his passage, we will focus on the topic and please follow us for the content we provide below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the standards for choosing PCB manufacturer? Before choosing a PCB manufacturer, think of the requirements of your electronic device. You also need to consider the requirements of a manufacturer. There are more complex PCB issues to which you should pay attention. The following is a list of 3 points to always have in mind when scouting for your PCB manufacturer.1. What are the requirements for your product? If you can determine what the requirements of your product are, you'll be able to narrow down your choices of PCB manufacturers. Four of these questions will be covered here, and they will relate to the requirements of your product as much as possible. Determine your budgetThe budget will directly affect the materials that you want to use. You should consider using premium materials or ordinary materials according to your budget. Your budget also affects your production level. Whether to produce new products or cut back on production depends on your account. Choosing materialsDo you know what kind of materials is best for your device? First, you should decide whether your product is low-end, standard, or premium. Then you may choose the materials accordingly. Additionally, the level of flexibility will also determine your PCB sourcing expectations. Your product might require a specific design of the printed circuit board. For example, wearable consumer electronics like smart phones might need flexible or flex-rigid PCBs. Please note that you can also choose between standard and HDI PCBs. The latter uses high-density interconnect technology, which allows them to place extra components while maintaining minimal size and weight. Production timeThis question is related to whether you want your idea to make money and the urgency you want to sell your invention to the public. The turnaround time, the more money the manufacturer will expect from sales. Every company cares about every invested cent. It is vital to stay on schedule by releasing new products and services. That is why you can't afford that any item takes longer delivery than predicted, and that includes printed circuit boards. Why Choose China PCB? International companies and product developers widely concern China's huge PCB market for their high quality and low price. In this part, we'll walk you through the process of choosing the right China PCB manufacturer that provides excellent products and value-added service. If you are looking for a reliable PCB manufacturer in China, we recommend you PCBBUY to custom your boards. PCBBUY Technology Co. Ltd is a smart factory specialized in quick turn PCB prototyping. PCBBUY service center is located in the beautiful city - Hangzhou, China, and its factory is located in the southern gate of China - Zhuhai, Guangdong. There are production lines of Single PCB,2 layers PCB,4 layers PCB,6 layers PCB,8 layers PCB and 1000mm PCB. We has passed the SGS, RoHS, UL and other authority certification, the fastest can achieve 24 hours of delivery. Benefits and features of China PCBs When it comes to a customer's requirements, China PCBs possess the right criteria to fulfill their need. Save costWhen you buy PCB online in China, you can tag printed circuit boards and other accessories illustrated on their websites. The key goal is to ensure you receive all your orders simultaneously, saving you from time wastage and spending more money with individual requests. InventoryIf customers sourced PCBs from their own country, they would have to pay large sums of money for inventory and warehouse costs. Comparatively, outsourcing PCB manufacturing services in China eliminates the cost of keeping excess inventory. Production speed and qualityLook to partner with a PCB assembler that has outstanding quality checks in their assembly. China's PCB manufacturers have the latest equipment to develop advanced models at very high speeds. It is due to their impressive rate of production and immense labor force. China's companies can make accurate duplicates of electronic components from other countries at a reduced cost of materials and labor. Therefore, customers won't be compromising on quality either. Technology, capability, and experienced expertsChina's PCB manufacturers have advanced technology to make complex and innovative circuit boards, while the workforce includes highly capable engineers and assembly teams. With so much of the world's volume of PCB production channeled to the country, the workforce there is skilled at assembling accurate PCBs and effectively fulfilling its requirements for a design. Environmental policyChina's government put one of the strictest environmental protection policies(See the link below) into effect in recent years. The manufacturers are trying their best to make sure their processing systems and the sources of their raw materials won't harm the environment. Then Consumers will get guilt-free purchases, and the products they use are environment-friendly. Production standardizationChina's PCB industry has set standard guidelines for producing modern and in-demand PCBs. The product standardization across manufacturers and companies make it easy for customers to compare different suppliers and their products. Stable delivery timeAs a PCB supplier or distributor, the amount of time a production company spends delivering your product is essential. However, China remains the best option when it comes to short delivery times. Once you have made your request, your order will be processed and shipped in the shortest time possible. Also, the platforms allow you to contact them directly, unlike other manufacturers from other parts of the world. Payment termsWith clients from all over the world, China has devised the best payment options in place. Most production companies accept payment options such as PayPal, credit/debit cards, direct bank transfers, e-wallets.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2021 10:59
HASL VS ENIG - which surface finish is better?
During the PCB manufacturing process, surface finish plays an essential part and it will influence the performance and quality of the finished boards. In this passage, we will talk about the list of some types of surface finish, especially compare HASL and ENIG, to provide a better surface finish method. Please follow us to read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the features of HASL? What is the definition of HASL?The Hot Air Solder Leveling is often expressed in short as 'HASL.' It is a type of surface finish used on printed circuit boards in the industry, which provides a good shelf life and the dependable solder joint. The hot air soldering leveling enables the soldering of a component more effectual. Initially, the HASL finish is applied to enhance solderability and also cover copper circuitries that are exposed. Features of HASLIt should not sound new to those individuals conversant with the industry that the HASL was one of the significant surface finish options for decades now, carrying advantages which include low cost, availability, and it is repairable. As discussed earlier, the HASL is a kind of surface finish with great solderability, and also offers an excellent shelf life. The HASL step, the revealed copper surfaces are covered by immersing the printed circuit board in a container containing molten solder. After this process, to complete the removal of excess solder and leveling by running the printed circuit board between the hot air knife. It is essential to make sure that the printed circuit boards are covered, or else the copper can oxidize and get worse, resulting in the circuit board being useless. The copper finishes are present on the printed circuit board; this finish present on the surface develops a serious interface between the printed circuit board and the component. What are the features of ENIG? What is the definition of HASL?The ENIG is a common acronym that stands for Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold. As the hot air solder leveling, it is also a surface finish of the printed circuit board industry. The ENIG got its name because it comprises electroless nickel plating, which is coated with a slim layer of immersion gold. Continuously, it has secured market share resulting from its ability to be flexible in various component assembly processes. Features of ENIG This type of finish involves a two-layer metallic coating; it consists of electroless plating that is covered with a thin layer of immersion gold, the function of the immersion gold is to safeguard the nickel from oxidizing during storage, and the nickel functions more like a barrier to the copper and a surface on which the components are soldered. Recently, due to the advantages provided by ENIG, ENIG is one of a printed circuit board (PCB) industry, the most common types of surface treatment, including a plane, lead-free, suitable for plated through holes (PTH), long shelf life. In the early stages of ENIG plating, reliability is still unclear, i.e., this type of leaf had dependability problems. This has resulted in the disuniting of the copper pads from the finish. Unlike the hot air solder leveling, the electroless immersion nickel-gold does not uniformly wet. To ensure that the conventional coating provides the proper temperature and concentration, the reducing agent consisting of nickel ions must be renewed. HASL VS ENIG – what are advantages and disadvantages? So far, we have discussed what these two types of finishes are. In a way, we can say the hot air solder leveling (HASL) has some specific advantages over the electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and vice versa. However, here in this section, we would specify each type of surface finish, the advantages and the disadvantages. It is important to note that no surface finish has a gift without a penalty, and therefore, the selection of any surface finish is based on a particular application. Advantages of HASL It is well known, hot air solder uniform, HASL process type is one of the major surfaces of the printed circuit board used in the PCB industry. Some of the advantages attached to its use include; • Ability to expose the printed circuit board to a temperature which can be up to 265°c. Exposing the printed circuit board to thisThe extent of weather allows for detecting any possible problem before the attachment of any component to the board. • The hot air solder leveling is uncomplicated to run.• It is a type of surface finish that is pocket-friendly; that is, the cost is low.• The hot air solder leveling is well known for its ability to offer a long storage life.• It is generally available. It can be an excellent advantage over other types of surface finish.• The hot air solder leveling disallows for the oxidation of copper.• A perfect wetting throughout the process of joining or soldering components.• This type of surface finish can be inspected visually. Disadvantages of HASL From one perspective, each advantage is always in a relationship with another disadvantage. There are strengths and weak points attached to every type of surface finish. Some of the weakness identified with the hot air solder leveling includes: • This type of surface finish is not suitable for the Surface-mount technology (SMT) due to the irregular surfaces involved withThe hot air solder leveling. • It is not eligible for fine pitch, going in hand with the first point. Horizontal levelers are required to enhance flatness.• Concerning boards that are additionally thin or thick, HASL has some specific restrictions, making it unsuitable for fabrication.• Printed circuit boards may face some drawbacks due to high heat exposure in their processes.• Inability to withstand tight tolerance on the plated holes.• The hot air solder leveling is not appropriate for line binding.• The plated through holes might get cracked due to high temperatures using this surface finish. Advantages of ENIG •, Unlike the hot air solder leveling, the electroless nickel immersion gold offers a flat surface• It is a type of surface finish suitable for plated through holes.• More like the hot air solder leveling, it provides good storage life• It has no lead• This type of surface finish is suitable for use as bottom metal for cob wiring.• ENIG has an excellent electrical conductivity ability• The electroless nickel immersion gold is recognized for its capability to prevent oxidation. Disadvantages of ENIG • One major challenge is that it is expensive• Unlike the hot air solder leveling, the ENIG is not re-workable• The electroless nickel immersion gold is associated with signal loss• Unlike the HASL, ENIG has a more complicated process.• ENIG is prone to the black pad, due to its low wielding strengthWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2021 10:54
How to make a solder ball？
Solder balls are also called a solder bump or solder sphere, due to their geometry. A solder ball is a spherical piece of soldering used to connect chip packages to PCB. Solder balls are created through sequential flow/quench or reflow processes. After passing through these processes, they're then degreased and classified. You can increase a solder ball's contact reliability by flattening its ball shape into a coin shape. We call such a solder ball a coin solder ball.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is Solder Ball Valve? A solder ball valve can act as a connector between multiple chip stacks in a PCB. It can serve to regulate the flow of electrons and signals between the various layers of the pile. Solder ball valves are usually contained in a Ball Grid Array (BGA). A BGA usually provides more inter-connectivity than a dual in-line or flat package. How to Solder a Ball Valve? The method described here revolves around placing solder ball valves on BGA packages through the use of a ball pickup tool. The primary objective is to form an array of solder balls on a substrate. You'll use this substrate to interconnect the conductive sites on other substrates. To implement this method, you'll need a ball pick up tool. This ball pickup tool uses vacuum suction to pick up solder balls from a fluidized ball reservoir. That implies that you need a solder ball reservoir that contains a collection of premade solder balls. The reservoir should also come with attachment agents. That also implies that you need at least one vacuum. That also means that you need at least one vacuum source to provide the orifice of the tool with suction power. The vacuum suction tool has at least one orifice for picking up a premade solder tool. It also comes with a ball seat connected to a vacuum source and a pressure source, controllable. The tool deploys a jet of gas to inject the picked solder balls into the conductive sites of a substrate. In another arrangement of the technology, the pads of the substrate are placed in a fluidized ball reservoir. The coating is applied with a flux or adhesive that attracts and binds with the solder balls in the pool. How to Make a Solder Ball? One of the oldest and widely used solder ball creation methods is the 3-Orifice design. In this method, you start by first acquiring a solid solder alloy, preferably an Sn63Pb37 or a Lead-free solder. Craft the solder alloy into a solder wire or a solder sheet. For a wire, cut the wire into tiny pieces, and for a solder sheet, knock out specks. Cut out pieces and bits in measures that will accurately yield the volume of a solder ball with a 2mm diameter. Next, place the pieces and specks into a column of hot oil to melt. The upper section of the column of hot crude should have a temperature above the melting point. Moreover, the lower section's temperature should be below the melting point. You'll obtain your desired solder balls when the pieces and specks in the column of hot oil melt. Next, cool the balls in a viscous liquid. Note that the presence of oxides in the column can distort the spherical shape of the balls. However, you can place a film of flux over the column to prevent this. This method is highly efficient and low-cost. With this method, you can create up to 7,000 high-quality solder balls per second in any orifice. However, the technique also comes with its downsides. For starters, the technique can be fraught with contamination and turn out messy. Each of the balls will each have a different weight, although you can measure their values. Also, it's nearly impossible to obtain balls with a tolerance of 1.5%. As noted above, the presence of oxides can distort the shape of the solder ball. One way to prevent the oxidation of the solder balls is through packaging. Not only can packaging prevent the removal of oxygen, but it can also prolong the shelf-life of the solder balls even beyond their expiry date. What Causes Solder Balls During Hand Soldering? Here are some of the causes of solder balls. MoistureThe presence of moisture in your solder paste can cause solder balls to explode during reflow. Water seeps into the solder paste during refrigeration. If the paste does not attain room temperature after removing it from the refrigerator, it will soak up the moisture. However, you can eliminate the water by baking. Circuit boardThe board itself can bring about undesired solder balls during hand soldering. Air, moisture, or alcohol used to clean the board can make the board yield unwanted solder balls. These contaminants can creep in between layers, open vias, and through-holes of a board with cracked or incomplete plating. Moreover, when the board undergoes heating in reflow, these contaminants are forced out. Their abrupt escape shoots gases in all directions and consequentially blows liquid solder across the board. Paste flux gases may also produce this effect when they escape from the sections of the panel close to the surface. If your board admits contaminants through open edges and vias cracks, and through-holes, there isn't much hope. You'll most likely need to remake the board, as you can't bake the trapped air away. If paste gasses are jetting off from underneath the board, you can resolve this by reducing the amount of paste. You can also fix this by minimizing the amount of volatiles in the paste. Smeared StencilsYour stencil might be depositing solder paste discriminately. You need to ensure that the under stencil cleaning process you use is efficient and thorough-going. It could be that you're using an inappropriate under stencil wiping roll, which is too thick. The improper thickness of the registration can cause the balls to spread across the underside of the stencil. Moreover, when you eventually use the stencil on a PCB, the extra balls get deposited on the board. Inappropriate Solder Paste FormulationPoorly formulated solder pastes may explode during heat reflow and blow liquid solders randomly across the board. The volatile materials are usually the most likely causes of the explosion. In such cases, you can prevent such explosions by reducing the preheat ramp rate. That allows the volatile material to be pushed out without abrupt outgassing. However, you need to ensure that you preheat slow enough. The Best Troubleshooting Technique For Solder Balls that Occur During Hand SolderingThe best way to find out the causes of solder balls during hand soldering is to test multiple products. The aim is to check to see if the defect occurs in certain types of PCB. Run various boards with the same solder paste and equipment to pinpoint the exact variables from which the fault originated.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2021 10:43
How to control impedance of PCB？
As a very important step of the PCB manufacturing process, control impedance plays a necessary role among all the steps. We are experiencing a rise in precision production, But why is it necessary to specify PCB controlled impedance for high-level requirements? How to control impedance of PCB？ In this passage, we are talking about the methods and reasons about control impedance of PCB, please check and read the content below for more information. If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Deal with signal integrity issues of PCB Recently, the globe has seen a surge in the switching speeds of most electronic devices. Now more than ever, devices have become complicated and somewhat faster than before. For instance, matters to do with Signal Integrity (SI) are far more recurrent as the device's operational speeds also increase. In other words, devices need to be in an excellent position to deal with any Signal Integrity issues. Apt examples of integrity issues on a printed circuit board include the following: ·Signal loss·Ringing·Power supply noise·Ground bounce·Crosstalk·Distortion By following the right design practices, designers can avoid potential SI issues. In this case, controlled impedance can help them in mitigating or averting signal integrity issues. Help to Manage Electromagnetic Interference (ELI) Impedance control in PCB is necessary for the management of electronic interference (ELI). Designers scared of circuit disruptions because of electromagnetic interference are safe if they choose to invest in impedance controlled PCBs. In the PCB world, even a slight pulse of reflection energy may disrupt the whole circuit. Such disruptions often extend to neighboring parts of the board. It may affect the flow of energy, making the entire board's operation fail. As a designer, you don't want to face any of these problems during a crucial process. That's why you need a quality PCB designed with impedance requirements in mind. Bring about controlled energy flow If you aren't aware, controlled impedance PCBs use very little energy. If you desire to have some controlled energy flow for all your projects, then an impedance control PCB should suit you. Controlled impedance is an essential factor during energy flow. It comes in handy, especially during transitions from lower Ohms to an environment that requires high Ohms, where there's much impedance. Such changes may lead to energy reflection noticed in the form of powerful pulses. The powerful vibrations are capable of interfering with the flow of energy. So, if you have to use high-powered digital devices such as those in RF applications, you'll find controlled impedance PCBs as a necessity. Make high-level devices to work faster If you need a PCB that guarantees your desired performance, then go for a controlled impedance PCB. The main reason why many devices fail, especially when it comes to integrity and signal power, is due to poor PCB layout and design. When it comes to the manufacture of PCBs, the layout stage is very critical. Failure to take special considerations may see high-speeds signals degrade. The reason for this is because they tend to disseminate from the driver to the receiver. So what are we trying to say here? Impedance control PCB devices tend to perform faster while also using little energy. Such kind of boards enables electronic devices to perform well for a longer time. It thereby improves its reliability and value. Clear requirements and keep moving Impedance controlled boards reduce many restrictions, thereby preventing delays during manufacturing. When all the requirements are precise, the designer can manufacture boards that function as desired. With specific conditions, there are no delays at all when it comes to material ordering. It also helps in minimizing the time wasted in exchanging phone calls and emails. While impedance control may be a bit expensive, it's worthwhile in the long-run. Here, all the requirements are noted, thereby keeping everything moving on forward as desired. Manufacturing high-quality controlled impedance PCB, the following steps: ·Etching·Multilayer processing·Engraving photos·Drilling·Finishing·Testing With impedance control, all requirements in every step remain clear. This thereby ensures that everything moves on as desired. Control impedance to avoid common mistakes When designing PCBs, designers often encounter many design challenges. Some of the mistakes and problems include: ·Traces crossing the split lanes·Trails with missing reference ground planes, leading to high impedance·Mismatches, especially when it comes to lengths that can bring about signal distortions.·Using a lot of pre-pegs·Wide impedance trace spaces If you want to design a functional impedance control PCB, you may have to invest or think about impedance control.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/21/2021 18:21
How are PCB assembled?
Since SMT assembly is a pretty important part among all the PCB manufacturing process, it will also affect the performance and the finished products of PCB. So due to the high-density nature of PCBs, the components of boards are very small so that the risks of defects will rise. In this passage, we will focus on the essential factors of PCB assembly and please follow us to learn more PCB professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the whole process of PCB assembly?1. During the design phase The actual process of SMT starts in the design phase. If you want to keep your production hassle-free, you will have design accordingly. There are many considerations for a good PCB SMT design. You need to consider the size, thickness, and other aspects of the PCB board. Only then can you choose the right components. While designing, you should try to reduce as many components as possible. Unnecessary clutter can compromise the quality of the PCB. It can also increase the cost of SMT assembly and PCB production. Other things to consider include the lead length of SMT components. You need to have an adequate exposed point to make your solder joints. The design phase should take into account all considerations of SMT assembly.2. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly PCB manufacturers should follow DFMA or Design For Manufacture and Assembly practices. DFMA helps manufacturers create the best quality PCBs with SMT assembly. The process also reduces the cost and chances of making mistakes. You can also produce more batches in less time for agile marketing. DFMA has several considerations when it comes to SMT. You need to have the right via positions, panel design, right component positions, and more. Adopting DFMA principles makes way for accurate PCBs that don't need changes later on. DFMA improves PCB manufacturing efficiency to a great extent. It's best if you do the DFMA and then hand the design to the PCB manufacturer. Else, it would help if you chose a reliable PCB manufacturer like us.3. Ensuring the Format PCB designers need to finalize the components and plans. Only then they can send the data and design to the manufacturer. The designer has to ensure the right size to facilitate automation. The format of the design should match the requirements of the manufacturer. Otherwise, you may have problems during the SMT assembly. PCB designers should also run DFM checks before sending the data to manufacturers. DFM checks help identify issues in design, like missing parts and wrong measurements. Running DFM checks at this stage reduces the risks of scrapped PCBs.4. Choose Gerber Data For bare PCB manufacturing, Gerber data is always available. But it can be a bit time-consuming. The effort is worth it, as all manufacturers support Gerber files. You can convert your PCB SMT assembly design to Gerber format. Then you can send it to your PCB manufacturer. Gerber format is the standard for PCB design and manufacturing. The file consists of an ASCII text file that integrates four elements into it- ·Parameters for configurations·Definitions of apertures·XY coordinate placements for flash and draw commands·Command codes for flash and draw PCB manufacturers can directly work with Gerber data and start producing your PCBs. It saves time and helps the manufacturer complete your batch quickly.5. Solder Paste Printer The solder paste machine is the first machine in the manufacturing process. Using a stencil, it applies solder paste to the required PCB pads. Manufacturers first put solder paste on the PCB. They use a stainless steel stencil to isolate places to apply solder paste. The components in the SMT assembly will sit in these areas. The solder paste in the printer contains small metal balls. Flux helps the solder melt and stick with the surface of the PCB. Most manufacturers use a machine or solder printer. The tool applies solder paste in chosen areas in the right amount. The device then applies the solder on the whole stencil. As a result, all open areas get soldered for SMT assembly. Soldering is an essential step for accurate placing of SMT devices. The components will rest on the soldered areas and then fixed via reflow soldering.6. Carrying Out Inspections The inspection machine within the solder paste printer is an excellent way to carry out inspection. It may be, however, a bit time-consuming. You can opt for a dedicated inspection machine that uses 3D technology. The inspection is essential and checks the quality of the soldering. The SMT assembly process can only move forward once the verification is over. Engineers sometimes also check the boards manually, especially in the case of prototypes. If there are issues in soldering, you should address them immediately.7. Take Care of Component Placement Component placement is the most crucial step of SMT assembly. Here engineers place the components on the solder on the PCB. Earlier, companies used old-fashioned ways to place elements on PCBs. Now, advanced technology gives us machines to perform the task. Reliable PCB manufacturers use machines that can pick and place components. The process saves ample labor hours for the manufacturer and takes the help of automation.8. Correct Reflow Soldering The reflow soldering attaches the components on the PCB permanently. The PCBs move through an industrial oven at very high temperatures. The heat melts the solder paste, which runs around the placed components. The PCBs then move through a conveyor belt through coolers. Solidifies the solder paste and fixes the components in their places efficiently. Two-sided PCBs need a bit more work for reflow soldering. It would help if you did it on both sides using the stencil placement method. Manufacturers first reflow the team with fewer components. Then they attend to the other side of the PCB. A correct reflow profile is vital to guarantee that there is no damage. It finds discrepancies in the parts due to overheating and disqualified solder joints.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/21/2021 18:01
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