How to Remove PCB Coating with Perfect Guidelines?
Depending on its applicability, a printed circuit board can suffer from elements such as dust, moisture, and extreme temperatures, and as such, coatings are necessary. A surface is more of a protective non-conductive layer applied to a PCB and its parts to protect it from damage. But what are the benefits associated with PCB coating? Why consider PCB coating? Then do you know how to remove PCB coating? In this passage, we are providing all the information of PCB coating removal. Please check and read the content below.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. Why PCB conformal coatings are important? MoistureMoisture is the commonest and destructive factor causing damage to PCB boards. Too much moisture will dramatically decrease insulation resistance and the value of Q, accelerate high-speed decomposition, and get conductors eroded. It's common for us to see metal parts that have been assembled on PCB board is covered with a layer of green copper just because chemical action just takes place between copper and water vapor and oxygen. PollutantIt's hardly believe that hundreds of pollutants can be found on the surface of printed circuit boards when conformal coating isn't applied on them. Those pollutants are equivalently hazardous to the reliability and functionality of PCBs. Similar with moisture or high humidity, pollutants contaminated on circuit boards can also lead to bad results such as electronic failure, conductor erosion, or even irretrievable shortcuts. Majority of contaminants left on circuit boards derive from residues during manufacturing process including flux, solvent parting agent, clipped wire and marking ink. Moreover, some contaminants result from manual residue when boards are touched by operating people including human oil, finger print, cosmetics and food residue. Plus, lots of pollutants even come from operating environment, such as salt spray, sand soil, fuel, acid and other erosive vapor and mould. What are types of conformal coating of PCB? There are five types of conformal coatings with four primary methods in which they are applied. All coatings can be sprayed by hand or spray booth. Some coatings can be applied manually using a brushing method however this requires an experienced hand. Dipping is a very common application method which is also performed manually or by a machine but is limited to slow-curing chemicals. Lastly, a robotic coating can be used for all coatings with proper tooling if you have the provided equipment or use a conformal coating company. · Acrylic Resins (AR)· Smooth glossy finish.· Good for long-term defense against moisture.· Usually applied by being brushed, sprayed, or dipped manually or by machine.· Epoxy Resins (ER)· Smooth hard surface.· Good against moisture, temperature, and abrasion.· Resists chipping, peeling, or cracking.· Usually applied by being brushed, sprayed, or dipped manually or by machine.· Silicone Resins (SR)· When cured, is rubbery and pliable.· Excellent against humidity, corrosion resistance, and extremely high temperatures.· Usually applied by being brushed, sprayed, or dipped manually or by machine· Polyurethane Resins (UR)· Uniform contour of PCB, can be thick or thin.· Approved by FDA in medical applications· Urethane is excellent at chemical resistance and good for applications needing protection from prolonged chemical exposure.· Usually applied by being brushed, sprayed, or dipped manually or by machine. How to remove PCB coating? Although chemical solvents are used for coating removal more often than any other process, no single solvent methodology exists. Implemented essentially for most liquid process films – acrylic, silicone, urethane — coating material is the prime determinant of solvent choice. Spot-basis coating removal by brushing or swabbing the local area with controlled solvent-application can be very successful. For faster results, immersion of assemblies in large solvent-quantities is suggested. The solvent butyrolactone is effective for chemical removal of most acrylic resin coatings. Chemical removal via methylene chloride or hydrocarbon-based solvents is recommended for silicone; they are far less likely to damage PCBs, components, metals and plastics than other solvents. For urethane, solvents composed of activators of ethylene glycol ether-base/alkaline or methanol-base/alkaline remove urethane conformal coatings efficiently. Chemical removal methods are generally ineffective for epoxy. Except in rare cases, solvent removal is futile for chemically-inert parylene. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is the only chemical solvent that consistently removes parylene from assembly substrates; the limited chemical options remaining are highly specialized and seldom applied. Micro abrasive blasting (abrasion) is inexpensive AND environmentally friendly. Assignment-specific formulas of abrasive media and inert gas/dry air are projected at the coated surface by a tiny nozzle attached to a stylus. Grounding devices dispel electrostatic potential; coating debris are removed from the substrate by filtration. Project focus can be as minute as an individual test node or as large an entire PCB. Unique among removal methods, micro-abrasion is recommended for acrylic, epoxy, parylene, silicone and urethane conformal films. Often used to remove coating from specific components – connectors or similar highly-selective assembly mechanisms — oxygen-based plasma is versatile. Its fine-scaled procedures can be expanded, to strip conformal films from entire PCBs. This method is effective for parylene removal, and has been successful with wet coatings.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/21/2022 09:13
How to Design a Rigid Flex PCB Step by Step with 7 Effective tips?
Broadly speaking, a rigid flex design will closely resemble a hardboard design, with the flexible layers fully extending into the rigid areas of the board. Similarly to hardboard layouts, a rigid flex fabrication package will include Gerber layers, along with drill files, solder mask layers, nomenclature, perimeter/rout files, etc. Avoid placing pads and vias on the bending area of the flex part of a PCB. Areas near the bending line will deliver mechanical stress that could jeopardize the structure of the plated holes. How to Design a Rigid Flex PCB? In this passage, check and read the content below for more information about Rigid Flex PCB design.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are the advantages of rigid flex PCB design? By combining the properties of rigid and flexible PCBs, rigid-flex PCBs come with a host of benefits for both manufacturers and consumers. · Mechanical stability- Their basic structure consists of interchanging layers of rigid and flexible PCBs. This ensures that they're both stable and flexible, facilitating easy installation in small spaces.· Connection reliability- With rigid-flex PCBs, you get greater stability and polarity, making connections easier and more secure with other components. You will also require fewer connector components with each application.· Dynamism- Along with repeatability and precision, you'll enjoy greater flexibility with packaging.· Cost-effective- By using rigid-flex PCBs, you can cut down on the total expenditures.· High-density applications- Arguably, the best benefit of rigid-flex PCBs is that they can be used for a high-density device population. This is due to their flexibility, stability, and low space use.· High shock and vibration resistance- Electronic components are used in a wide range of items, some of which experience constant vibrations. With such devices, you won't have to worry about damage as rigid-flex PCB is highly resistant to shock and vibration. What are the guidelines of rigid flex PCB design? Broadly speaking, a rigid flex design will closely resemble a hardboard design, with the flexible layers fully extending into the rigid areas of the board. Similarly to hardboard layouts, a rigid flex fabrication package will include Gerber layers, along with drill files, solder mask layers, nomenclature, perimeter/rout files, coverlayer, etc. However, there are some key differences between the fabrication packages for rigid flex PCB’s and hardboard applications: · A rigid flex print generally has many more dimensions on it, and should carefully define the requirements, as these boards are generally used in 3D applications. It should also accurately define the rigid to flex transition areas, as these are not always apparent when viewing the Gerber layers alone.· The material layup in rigid flex boards is critical, and should be worked out in collaboration with your fabricator. Your fabricator can help you make the right choices in materials based your requirements such as UL flammability rating, minimum bend radii required, mechanical considerations, impedance control on both flex and rigid layers, RoHS certification, lead free assembly compatibility, and other considerations.· Rigid flex boards usually require additional layers in the Gerber files. Layers 1 and X will have solder mask layers, but you will also need artwork layers that define the coverlayer and bondply sections (if required) of the board, and how much each go into the hardboards. IPC 2223 recommends 0.100″ but your fabricator may be able to accommodate less than that. The IPC-2223 Sectional Design Standard for Flexible Printed Boards is an excellent resource for wise practices in both flexible circuit and rigid flex circuit design. An electronic download of the IPC 2223 can be purchased here. How to choose rigid flex PCB material? Polyimide is the primary material used for both flex core layers and coverlay layers. Flex materials offer better material properties when compared to rigid PCBs. The thickness of flex materials is uniform with an improved Dk value ranging between 3.2 and 3.4. The lack of woven glass reinforcement eliminates variations in Dk. Polyimide is also extremely uniform in its thickness due to its “cast” manufacturing process. The typical layer thickness ranges from 0.5 to 4mils. Polyimide flex cores are cladded with either electro-deposited or rolled annealed copper. This copper is very thin and is suitable for both dynamic and static applications. 0.5oz (0.7mils) copper is commonly used in flex PCBs. The most common flex PCB copper weights are 0.5oz and 1oz. The maximum copper weight is 2oz. This gives the best combination of the thinnest possible construction. There are two major types of flex materials: · Adhesive-based where the copper is bonded to the polyimide with acrylic adhesive.· Adhesive-less where the copper is cast directly onto the polyimide.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/21/2022 09:13
How to Find PCB Footprint Step by Step for Beginners?
There are several ways to create your PCB footprint library, and the first is to use existing library parts. In many cases, the vendor or supplier of the PCB design tools you are using will already have vast libraries from which you can pull parts. There are also many component vendors out there who will offer a footprint of the specific part you are using tailored for the design tools that you are working on. The advantage here is that, since these footprints are created by the component vendor, they are usually very accurate. In this passage, we will provide all the information about PCB footprint. If you are searching for the knowledge of PCB footprint, check and read the content below for more.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are the issues of PCB footprint? Today, the industry is more aware of the need to follow PCB footprint creation guidelines because wasted space isn’t the only thing that can happen if a footprint is created incorrectly. Here are some of the other problems that you might see: Incorrect pad sizes: Pads that are too small can cause breakout problems for through-hole parts and bad solder joints for surface mount technology (SMT) parts. Pads that are too large can take up room for trace routing or cause SMT parts to float out of position during soldering. Pads that are not spaced correctly: Through-hole pads that are too close together or too far apart can cause problems with component insertion during assembly. SMT pads that are too close or too far from each other can cause insufficient solder joints to be formed, as not enough of the component lead is available for soldering. Component outlines that are too small: Footprints that have their body outlines drawn too small will not be able to be assembled using automated production lines. Depending on the severity of the error, the parts may be able to be manually assembled, but that could take extra time and expense. For large errors, the boards may be completely rejected by the manufacturer. As you can see, it is very important to get the size of the PCB footprint correct before it is used in the design. Having to redesign a circuit board because of a footprint error can prove costly from a time and money perspective. Here are some footprint creation recommendations, however, that can help. What are the basic guidelines of PCB footprint design? Your PCB component footprints should include several basic pieces of information. Things like placement, assembly, and silkscreen outlines, reference designators and part numbers are all invaluable and should be present in a component footprint. Your CAD tools are invaluable here as you can create your 2D footprints in a variety of file formats. However, it is best to use the CAD tools in your PCB design software to ensure file compatibility. There are four important points to remember when creating PCB footprints: I remember creating my first PCB footprint from a datasheet. A thorough datasheet will show a drawing of the component with all dimensions, pad locations, pad sizes, and any other important features that should be included in a PCB footprint. Some components, such as power MOSFETs, may contain an integrated heat sink or die-attached paddle that needs to be included in the component footprint. This is quite important for high voltage designs and high speed designs as these elements are included in some thermal and electrical simulations. Whether you can find a library for your part, have one built for you or must create one yourself, you need to ensure that the footprint pad layout adheres to the following guidelines: · Make sure that the component pad layout is symmetric. This will prevent tombstoning, which is the detachment of one side of the component due to unbalanced stress.· Make sure that opposite pads for a single component have the same size and shape. This helps prevent tombstoning and component shifting.· Make sure that the solder mask dam between footprint pads and all other surface elements (i.e. other component footprint pads, traces and drill holes) is adequate. This prevents solder bridging, which occurs when solder joints intended to be separate are too close together. It also allows for the application of solder mask, which protects the board from the environment.· Make sure that clearance between footprint pads and the board edge is sufficient. This helps with depanelization, which is the separation of the processed panel into individual boards. How to process PCB footprint design? A footprint is the physical layout of the sizes, shapes, and separation of the pads that need to be placed with exposed copper on the bare board so that a component placed on top can be soldered down accurately, with the right pins connecting to the right electrical nets. PCB design packages allow you to draw the schematic of the circuit symbolically and to link each component to an appropriate footprint so that when the designer moves to the board layout phase all of the wires will be connected to each component as specified by the schematic. Footprint of a compliment marks the area occupied by itself on board along with indication of points of connection ( for soldering ) Footprint of components are used for designing of a PCB. These footprints are moved at appropriate location on the board before routing ( drawing path for electrical connection ). Footprint helps in determining spacing between components and also helps in routing. Spacing between components is important factor from production point of view, as well as design point of view.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/21/2022 09:09
All about HDI PCB Manufacturing Process with Analysis of PCB Industry
A HDI PCB is usually found in complex electronic devices that demand excellent performance while conserving space. Applications include mobile /cellular phones, touch-screen devices, laptop computers, digital cameras, 4/5G network communications, and military applications such as avionics and smart munitions. In this passage, we are providing all the knowledge of HDI PCB, please check and read the content below for more information. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What is the market situation of HDI PCB? Before we head into forecasts, let’s mention current statistics. It doesn’t take an expert to see that the printed circuit boards are trendy throughout the world. You can even find guides explaining how to make a PCB at home. However, if you want to launch a commercial product, it is vital that you design and assemble a reliable PCB, and you need professional equipment and experts for that. The PCB industry has recently set a new standard in high-density to interconnect technology (HDI). Users throughout the world have accepted it and implemented it in their products and other applications. A report published by expert’s pinpoints that this market earned more than $9.4 billion in 2017. The estimation is that the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) will be over 11% in the coming years. If you do the math that means that the HDI PCB market can generate more than $22 billion by 2025! That is not only 2.5 times more than the result made in 2017, but it is also an achievement that will positively surprise the entire industry. And the best part is that it seems more than feasible, especially if we consider the fantastic progress the sector made in only a couple of years. Even if the growth is somewhat less than projected, There is no doubt that the high-density interconnect PCB market will usher in a bright future. The technology hasn’t reached its peak yet, which means we can expect even better boards in the coming years. On top of that, more companies are joining the production of HDI boards every day, increasing their use. What is the process of HDI PCB manufacturing? There are a number of steps involved in the typical PCB manufacturing process, but HDI PCB manufacturing uses some particular steps that may not used in other boards. The HDI design process starts like many other processes, where the · Determine the layer count required to route all signals, either by using the largest BGA component on the board or by using the interface + direction count from the largest IC on the board.· Contact your fabrication house to select materials and obtain dielectric data to create your PCB stackup.· Based on layer count and thickness, determine the via style that will be used to route signals through inner layers.· Perform a reliability assessment if relevant, to verify that the materials will not stress interconnects to fracture during assembly processing and operation.· Determine design rules based on fabricator capabilities and reliability requirements (need for tear drops, trace widths, clearances, etc.) to ensure reliable manufacturing and assembly. Stackup creation and determination of design rules are the critical points as they will determine ability to route the board and reliability of the end product. Once these points are completed, a designer can implement their fabricators DFM requirements and reliability requirements as design rules in their ECAD software. Doing this on the front-end is very important and it will help ensure the design is reliable, routable, and manufacturable. Why HDI PCB is popular? If we analyze the situation from 2017, we can notice that about 66% of the total HDI PCB revenue was for the tablet and smartphone industry. That makes sense because these products require a high-performing board that will be thin and compact-sized at the same time. The experts do not doubt that smartphones and tablets will remain the most popular HDI PCB application in the coming years. They should keep the leading position for at least five years from now, but the exciting thing to discuss is the growing popularity of other smart products. We are talking about smartwatches and other wearables with “smart” features. All those products are electronic devices, and they require printed circuit boards to work. As a result, the PCB industry has been producing significantly more for this application. The estimated annual growth rate for PCB use for smart wearables is around 14% in the coming years. Although smartphones and tablets will remain at the top, watches and other wearables will get closer by 2025.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/20/2022 09:30
How to Route USB PCB with All the Probably Problems?
Ordinary USB device differential line signal line width and line spacing can be consistent with the entire PCB board signal line width and line spacing. However, when the USB device works at 480 Mbits/s, it is not enough to do the above. We also need to control the impedance of the differential signal. Controlling the impedance of the differential signal line is very important for the integrity of the high-speed digital signal. How to make USB PCB? In this passage, we are going to provide all the information about USB PCB, please check and read the content below.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. Why should you use USB? There are so many reasons to use USB-C, here are in my opinion the top 5 reasons why you should use the USB-C connector in your projects. · Is increasingly used in different types of devices, it is the new standard when it comes to device connectors. · The USB-C connector is more durable due to its design than a micro USB-B connector. · Greater compatibility for new fast-charging standards. · USB-C can carry multiple signals simultaneously in addition to the standard USB signals (Vbus, D +, D-, GND). · It is capable of carrying higher voltages and currents than the USB-B connector. Where can USB PCB are found? USB ports and plugs were developed to simplify the process of connecting multiple different USB devices and peripherals to computers. While many older port types are still in widespread use today (especially for legacy hardware), fewer new peripherals are being manufactured that rely on them. In their place, USB interface connectors have quickly become a near-ubiquitous feature. Today, you will find USB connections in almost all types of electronics and communications hardware, from laptops and mobile phones to printers, microphones and headphones, and even cars. In short, almost every device that includes a PCB (printed circuit board) will likely have at least one type of USB port on it somewhere. PCB USB connectors and related components are cheap to buy, and easy to mount in a variety of ways including panel, surface, through-hole and cable mount. It is also worth noting that many device types also now support a newer standard called USB On-The-Go (USB OTG), which enables certain products to switch between host and device roles. A common example would be a mobile phone, which can act as both a mass storage device itself and a USB reader for importing data from external peripherals. What are the types of USB PCB connector? A wide range of USB PCB connectors is available to suit various applications. Some of the common types of connectors include- Vertical Mount PlugYou will find vertical mount USB PCB connectors made to fix them to a PCB vertically. You can mount these vertical plugs through various methods like through-hole or soldering. These plugs are ideal for cradle mounting applications. You can use them for charging multiple devices like smartphones and computers. Vertical Through HoleThese connectors have a vertical orientation, just like vertical mount plugs. The terminations of the USB connectors pass through the plated thru holes of the PCB before fixing. Vertical through-hole connectors offer a narrow footprint for space-restricted applications. Mid-MountMid-Mount PCB connectors are suitable for low-profile consumer electronics. You find them useful when you are concerned about the height over and below the PCB. You can mount the connectors in the middle portion of the PCB using surface mount or through-hole method. Top MountYou can fasten the top mount USB connectors using the terminating leads on the top side of the PCB. Generally, you find the Top mount connectors onto the contact pads. What are the problems of USB PCB? Your USB PCB can cause errors or malfunction if you have a defective USB port. First, you need to determine whether the problem is with the port or the device. Plugin your device into another USB port and check if it works. If it does, then you can be sure that the USB port is out of order. If your device still doesn’t work, then it’s not the fault of the USB port. You can try the following- · Check and clean if any dirt has accumulated on the USB port.· Do a physical check to see if the port is loose or broken.· Restart your computer/laptop and see if the port works· Check your device manager and uninstall the USB Host Controller.· Replace USB port if everything else failsWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/20/2022 09:24
What is Edge Connector Beveling in PCB Manufacturing?
Edge connector beveling is the cutting or shaping of an edge connector at an angle or slant. Any beveled connector PCB or other makes the entry of the board into the connector easier. Edge connector beveling is a parameter in the order details that you have to select and check when this option is required. In this passage, we are providing all the information of edge connector beveling in PCB. If you are searching for the professional knowledge of edge connector beveling in PCB, please check and read the content below.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. Why edge connector beveling in PCB is necessary? PCBs’ connection points are primarily subjected to constant unplugging and plugging based on the nature or role of interconnecting PCBs. Therefore, if there is no durable contact edge, then this means that they are prone or subject to wear-and-tear that may bring about device malfunction. The habit of using gold to plate a majority of connectors helps prolong the durability of edge connectors. But isn’t gold too expensive of all the metals out there? Other metals such as copper can work fine, but gold is preferred based on plenty of advantages that it offers. Gold has always been preferred over other metals since it has proven to be highly corrosive resistant and consists of high electrical conductivity. Better yet, gold can be easily alloyed with nickel or cobalt to increase further its ability to withstand wear and tear after a short time. There have been earlier experiments undertaken to find out the resistance of gold compared to other metals, and gold has shown to consist of one of the lowest resistance levels compared to other metals. Better yet, gold has also been found to be highly inert and does not oxidize or immediately react with other metals. What are chamfering of edge connector beveling in PCB? An edge connector is a female connector that mates with the contact pads lining the edge of a PCB. Think of those PCI and PCI slots that make it easy to add memory cards into the motherboard of your PC. When a product supports hardware upgrades, edge connectors are often the standardized interface of choice. As the designer, it’s your job to make sure your board can easily mate with the standard edge connector on the mating board. That’s where chamfering comes in—you need to ensure that the mating edge of your PCB meets the chamfer angle and tolerances specified by the edge connector manufacturer. You’ll also want to make sure the fabrication house you choose is capable of meeting the tolerances and chamfer angle you desire. To give you an idea, here are some common design parameters you’ll encounter for PC and PCI cards: · Chamfer angle: 45° for PC, 20° for PCI · Chamfer depth: 0.5 mm for PC and PCI · Gold finger spacing: 0.7mm for PC, 2.0mm for PCI What are the limitations of edge connector beveling in PCB? Gold finger technology is of great importance. But sadly, its application remains limited due to several reasons. For instance, plated pads have to be on the edge of the PCB. Since gold plating requires an electroplating process, there has to be a connection that links the plated pads and the panel frame. Most plating pads manufactured by players in the industry produce fingers that do not exceed over 40mm. If you require longer or oversized gold fingers, then the process of creating them will intensify. The above is not all. If you don’t know, the inner layers of the edge connectors must be free of copper material. Otherwise, the entire process/steps of beveling the contacts can expose the copper material. Apart from flexible printed circuit boards, when gold-plating on both sides of the PCB, the least separating distance between the lower and the upper layers of the printed circuit board is supposed not to exceed 150mm, while the maximum length should not be more than 40mm. There are other rare cases where gold fingers appear shorter or longer than the rest. It means that the shorter pads will not fail to be connected vertically to the plating bar, an aspect that may go ahead to affect matters to do with functionality.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/20/2022 09:16
What is the Standard of Aluminum PCB Thermal Conductivity？
Aluminum is one alternative material that can be used in the core of a PCB, commonly referred to using the misnomer “aluminum PCN”. Using aluminum as the metal core in a PCB allows it to easily dissipate heat away from active components thanks to its high thermal conductivity. The high thermal conductivity of aluminum or another metal in the core of a PCB allow heat to be distributed more uniformly throughout a board. In this passage we are providing all the information of aluminum PCB. If you are searching for the knowledge, please check and read the passage below for more.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are the benefits of aluminum PCB? Environmentally FriendlyAluminum is non-toxic and recyclable. Manufacturing with aluminum is also conducive to conserving energy due to its ease of assembly. For printed circuit board suppliers, using this metal helps maintain the health of our planet. Heat dissipationHigh temperatures can cause severe damage to electronics, so it is wise to use a material that can help dissipate heat. Aluminum can actually transfer heat away from vital components, thus minimizing the harmful effect it could have on the circuit board. Higher durabilityAluminum provides strength and durability to a product that ceramic or fiberglass bases cannot. Aluminum is a sturdy base material that can reduce accidental breakage during manufacturing, handling, and everyday use. LightweightFor its incredible durability, aluminum is a surprisingly lightweight metal. Aluminum adds strength and resilience without adding on any additional weight. What is standard of aluminum PCB thermal conductivity？ The thermal conductivity of Aluminum Core PCB, is an aluminum substrate thermal performance parameter, which is one of the three major criteria for measuring the quality (the other two properties are the thermal resistance value and the withstand voltage value ). The thermal conductivity of the aluminum substrate can be tested after lamination. At present, the high thermal conductivity is generally ceramics, copper, etc. However, the cost of ceramics and copper is high. So the most widely used is the aluminum substrate, which is a unique metal-based copper-clad aluminum substrate with good thermal conductivity, electrical insulation and mechanical properties. Heat dissipationThe multilayer pcb board has high density and high power, It is difficult to dissipate heat. The conventional PCB substrates, such as FR4, CEM3, are thermal poor conductors. The local heating of the electronic equipment is not solved, resulting in high temperature and the electronic components will burn out. But the aluminum substrate can solve this heat dissipation problem. Thermal expansionThermal expansion and contraction are the common nature of matter, and the thermal expansion coefficients of different substances are different. The aluminum-based PCB can effectively solve the heat dissipation problem, thereby alleviating the thermal expansion and contraction of different materials on the printed board, and improving the durability and reliability of the whole machine and the electronic equipment. In particular, it solves the problem of thermal expansion and contraction of SMT (Surface Mount Technology). Dimensional stabilityAluminum core PCB is clearly much more stable than printed boards of insulating materials, which is heated from 30 ° C to 140 ~ 150 ° C, and the dimensional change is 2.5 ~ 3.0%. How to process the thermal management of aluminum PCB? In LED applications, especially high-power LED lights, it’s known that LED SMD converts the greater part of the current into heat rather than light itself. The PCB size is designed towards miniaturization, and the heat output per unit area increased in this situation. That’s to say, more and more heat is transferred to a smaller and smaller surface with or without PTH. Too much heat can’t be dissipated, the parts on the PCB assembly have to work under high temperature environment. When work in a certain time, the parts are easier to be damaged, then the products lifespan will be shorter compared to those products with high thermal conductivity MCPCBs. The consideration of sufficient heat management seems very important in PCB design stage. Design / construction of PCBTry to separate high power and signal conductors, enlarge the tracks of heavy currents, add copper thickness and add more thermal vias. Compared with the PCB design without these considerations, your design can do thermal dissipation much more and quicker. Heavy Copper PCBsCopper itself has good thermal conductivity. Heavy copper (2oz, 3oz, max 10oz) can improve the heat dissipation. Check our Heavy Copper PCB to know more about the thermal simulation of heavy copper. Thermal Via ArrayThermal vias will be helpful to achieve a significant reduction in thermal resistance, and improve thermal dissipation.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/19/2022 10:05
What Are the 5 Effective Tips of PCB Components Assembly Process?
The PCB is something that is usually green in color and is a rigid body that holds various electronic components on it. These components are soldered upon the PCBs in the process called “PCB Assembly” or PCBA. Are you going to learn more about PCB components assembly? We will provide all the details about PCB components assembly please check and read the passage below for more professional knowledge.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are the technologies of PCB components assembly? SMT: SMT stands for “Surface Mount Technology“. The SMT components are very small sizes and comes in various packages like 0402, 0603, 1608 packages for resistors and capacitors. Similarly for Integrated circuits ICs we have SOIC, TSSOP, QFP and BGA. The SMT components assembly is very difficult for human hands and can be time taking process so it is mostly done by automated pick and place robots. THT: THT stands for “Through hole Technology”. The components with leads and wires, like resistors, capacitors, inductors, PDIP ICs, transformers, transistors, IGBTs, MOSFETS are example. The component has to be inserted on one side of PCB and pulled by leg on other side and cut the leg and solder it. The THT components assembly is usually done by hand soldering and is relatively easy. What are the types of PCB components? What is Resistor?Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in PCBs and is a passive electrical component whose function is to introduce resistance to the flow of electric current in an electrical circuit to limit the current. Their function is to resist the flow of current by dissipating electric power as heat. They come in a multitude of different types made of a range of different materials but the classic resistor most familiar to the hobbyist is the ‘axial’ style resistors with leads on both long ends and the body inscribed with colored rings. These rings are a code that indicates their resistance value. What is Capacitor?The Capacitor is a passive electrical component, whose function is to store electrical energy and deliver it to the circuit when needed. The function of capacitors is to temporarily hold electric charge, and release it whenever more power is needed elsewhere in the circuit. Typically, it does this by collecting opposite charges on two conductive layers separated by an insulating, or dielectric, material. Capacitors are often categorized according to the conductor or dielectric material, which gives rise to many types with varying characteristics from high capacitance electrolytic capacitors, diverse polymer capacitors to the more stable ceramic disc capacitors. Capacitors fall into two categories: Polarized and non-polarized. What is Inductor?The Inductors is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores magnetic energy when an electric current is passed through it. It’s an insulated wire wound into a coil around a core of some material (air, iron, powdered iron, or ferrite material) in a spiral form. The simplest inductor is a coil of wire. The greater the number of windings, the greater the magnetic field and therefore inductance. This serves to amplify the magnetic field substantially and therefore, the stored energy. What is the process of PCB components assembly? It is always prudent to design printed circuit boards with PCB assembly in mind. However, this concept proves a commonly misunderstood concept. It is common knowledge that the Assembly of components can happen via one or both through-hole and surface-mount technology approaches. You have to identify the appropriate approach in the design phase to ensure that you approach the right PCB assembly partner for your needs. PCB Assembly with Through-Hole Electronic Components It is an assembly process that features electronic components that possess lead protrusions getting fixed through small holes within the PCB before soldering. The soldering process can either entail hand soldering or wave soldering. Wave soldering entails a printed circuit board assembly process where there is insertion of the solder (solder bar) in a high-temp bath. As it remains in the molten form inside the bath, it forms waves at high temperatures. However, the temperature ranges with the type of solder used. The process entails the insertion of components, application of flux, preheating before wave soldering. It then undergoes cleaning and testing to identify any solder joint flaws or faults. Conversely, hand soldering happens through manufacturing units devoid of any excessive workloads or repairs. It happens by hand and mostly post- the wave soldering process. PCB Assembly with Surface-Mount Electronic Components It is an assembly approach that uses surface-mount technology in assembling SMD electronic components. Surface mount devices do not have legs or leads and thus get mounted on the circuit board’s surface. It uses a separate set of electronic components, equipment, and other solder materials in the assembly process from the THT approach.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/19/2022 09:52
What is PCB Electrical Testing during the Manufacturing Process?
Like how electricians check for a range of electrical functions in commercial and residential electrical wiring, circuit boards also undergo this process. However, the type and manner slightly differ. Nonetheless, the endgame often proves similar – to ensure the integrity and proper functioning of the circuitry. In this passage, we are providing all the details about the PCB electrical testing. If you are curious about PCB electrical testing, please check and read the content below for more professional knowledge.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are the main types of PCB electrical testing? There is no specific test required for electrical testing of PCBs, as long as whatever tests performed prove the board meets electrical testing standards. Electrical testing procedures for printed circuit boards can include: Capacitance TestingThis is a type of testing that looks for shorts in the board. The process involves charging a net with electricity and then measuring the induced capacity. Resistance TestingThis type of testing measures resistance in ohms. The resistance is a measure of the collisions that occur between electrons and atoms that can disturb electron flow when current flows through the conductor. When testing for resistance, you are looking for low resistance as an indicator of a good conductor. Circuits have more resistance the longer and thinner they are, so this is a consideration you must take into account when testing. Comparative TestingThis is done using a standard master board that you have already verified to teach a net list program, which you then compare your other boards against. The problem with this type of testing is that there is always the possibility the master board had an initial defect. Continuity TestingThis test ensures the resistance between test points does not exceed the required limits. Flip TestTesting is done on either side of the board as a universal grid. It’s much less accurate than the clamshell method below. Clamshell TestingSimultaneous testing of both sides of the board are done at once. This method is a popular method for reliability, as you are testing all points on the board at once. Adjacency TestingTesting for shorts is conducted by checking isolation between conductors. You can test for proximity adjacency or line-of-sight adjacency. Adjacency TestThis test checks isolation between conductors. Flying Probe TestingThis very reliable method of testing involves the use of a flying-probe test sequence, which probes the board at high speeds looking for shorts and openings throughout the board. When to process PCB electrical testing during manufacturing? Once the part has completed processing and is in its final ship format, single pieces, or array layout, some ship in a larger panel form, the final product is electrically tested. Often ET is not considered at all by designer or even by PCB manufacturers. Why is this? Well, there are several reasons. With technology increasing, layer count, blind vias, components all add time. Each electrical connection has a start and end point. Some circuits jump from layer to layer using vias as their passageway to the end point. Mid-points in circuitry are plenty full as well as test points (TP) that are placed for end-product testing once assembled. All the examples must be tested, the more there are the longer the test can take. We estimate the ET time using only what we know, quantity of vias, single sided, or double-sided component placement, the number of through holes, blind holes, or buried holes. From these numbers, we can only calculate what we believe the test time will be. Testing equipment varies. In most facilities, the flying probe, bed of nails, or clam shell are commonly in place. Bed of nails testers are the traditional or original testing method. Using a bed of nails tester requires a customer build fixture containing, plexiglass layers, standoff pins, holes drilled through the layers to support pogo pins. Typically, a known good board that has passed is kept with the fixture to test the parts against. The area needed to store the fixture is a problem, the fixtures are not small and take up valuable space but are necessary to keep. This is not the desired test method for higher technology today, but it is still used. Flying probe or probe-bot testing is an electronic method of testing and is the most widely used in most facilities today, more reliable, and takes up less space, however, it is a much slower process. Yes, slower, but fascinating to watch. As each probe arm moves quickly from point to point to test the part, it can take a few minutes to complete the single piece test; we have recorded more than 45 minutes per piece to test a part.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/19/2022 09:45
How to Make PCB Project for DIY Lover Step by Step?
When designing a circuit board it may sometimes seem as though arriving at the final design is going to be a long and arduous journey. Whether it’s the basics of micromanaging your copper and solder, or trying to ensure that your circuit board ends up printed after all, or going into more specific design problems such as through-hole technology or layout design with vias, pads, and any number of signal integrity issues, you’ll want to make sure you have the right design software. If you are a DIY lover and you want to build a PCB project, please check and read the content below for more information.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. How to design PCB Project? Circuit board design and layout is both an art and a science, and it can be difficult to get started designing a new circuit board from scratch. If you’re new to electronics and circuit board design, and you’re still learning about designing a custom circuit board in Altium Designer®, we’ve compiled the 10 important steps you can use to create modern PCB layouts. In this tutorial, we'll show all the steps involved in creating your circuits and schematics, then we'll transition into creating a circuit board layout that can actually be manufactured. There is a lot that goes into any engineered design, from a basic printed circuit to a complex non rigid PCB. Any new electronic device will start as a block diagram and/or a set of electronics schematics. Once you have your schematics finished and validated, you can follow the steps below to create modern PCB layouts in Altium Designer. Here's the full list of PCB layout and design steps: · Create the Schematic· Create a Blank PCB Layout· Schematic Capture: Linking to Your PCB· Designing Your PCB Stackup· Defining Design Rules and DFM Requirements· Place Components· Insert Drill Holes· Route Traces· Add Labels and Identifiers· Generate Design Files How to build a PCB Project? You’ll need to use soldering equipment to solder the components to your PCB construction. If you are using a perfboard, single-sided PCB board, or double-sided PCB board, you’ll have to wire up all the components before you can test them. The best way is to put each component where you will mount it on your PCB project. Check to see that everything fits, then test. If it all works, you are close to completion. It’s also a good idea to make sure that each of the components has a dedicated ground. You can solder them with the same color of solder that they are on your PCB project since green is the most common ground color for many components. Double-side PCB boards can be hard to use if you don’t have access to the proper tools and equipment. You can get schematics of the circuit and components on the board, but you’ll need to add them to your PCB project layout. Many online services such as Hackaday, Oscillocast, and others offer free PCB layouts for DIY projects. What are the characteristics of a good PCB design? There are all sorts of things that go into the PCB design projects, but here are some of the most important characteristics. It should be versatile enough to support many different types of applicationsIf you are building a custom circuit board, try to design it without limitations on one type of application. There may be reasons why you want to do this. Such as if you will sell the product in stores and need it to remain generic so that other people can use it for their applications or modifications. Consider the types of applications and plans you will use with your circuit or program and ensure they will work correctly It should be easy to read, understand, and followWhen creating your PCB design, you can do many different things to make it rather complicated. Such as making it very detailed with lots of unique numbering and symbols for each component. Also, there can be a lot of space on the board not used for anything. Would you mind keeping all your PCB design in a way that makes them easy to follow? You can do it by using a simple numbering and symbol system and mostly using the space to make sense. It should be easy to make changes to it when they are necessaryAs you create your PCB design, you may find problems or areas of your project that you need to modify slightly. It doesn’t mean you have to start from scratch if they aren’t too complexWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/18/2022 09:34
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