5 Challenges of Flexible PCB Manufacturing Process
Flexible PCB, also known as flex circuit boards, flex PCBs, flex circuits, or flexible printed circuits, features a combination of several printed circuits as well as components that are positioned on a flexible substrate. The introduction of flexible PCBs has revolutionized the legacy electrical interconnection techniques, traditionally used to connect multiple parts of the same circuit or of multiple electronic devices. In this passage, we will talk about the knowledge about the challenges during the flexible PCB manufacturing process, if you are interested in flexible PCB manufacturing, please check and read the content we provide below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 challenges during flexible PCB manufacturing process?1. Knowing the structure of flexible PCB As happens for rigid PCBs, FPCs can be divided into single layer, double layer or multi- layer circuits. The main elements of a single layer flexible printed circuit are the following: · Dielectric substrate film: the base material of the PCB. The most commonly used material is polyimide (PI), characterized by high resistance to traction and temperature; · Electrical conductors: made of copper, they represent the traces of the circuit; protective finish, made with cover lay or cover coat; · Adhesive material (polyethylene or epoxy resin), used for joining the various parts of the circuit together.2. Getting into the importance of flexible PCB The statistics are clear, and they pinpoint that the production of flexible printed circuit boards increases every day. Intriguingly, they've become popular now, even though flexible circuits were first used in the 1950s. Have you ever thought about what the secret of their popularity is? A large number of users considers them attractive for the following reasons: • The ability to bend – the primary benefit is obvious, but it is also the most important. • Improved reliability – the low number (or elimination) or connectors, solder joints, and other interface connections makes these boards more reliable. • Thin and light – while ensuring flexibility, the manufacturers also found a way to reduce the size and weight of flexible PCBs. Thanks to that, it is easier to fit them in restricted spaces.3. Disadvantages of flexible PCB Although there are several and meaningful advantages, the FPC technology has also some drawbacks, or disadvantages. First of all, compared to traditional rigid PCBs, FPCs have a high one-time initial cost. Since flexible circuits are designed for very specific applications, the initial costs related to circuit and prototype design are higher than for rigid PCBs. Another disadvantage is the difficulty of repairing or modifying the multilayer PCB when it needs to be reworked. In this case, in fact, it is first necessary to remove the protective film that wraps the circuit, perform the intervention and then restore the protection.4. Choose the proper material of flexible PCB The performance of a printed circuit board always has a lot to do with the materials used when designing it. That is why identifying new and improving the existing materials is a way to enhance a flexible PCB. The printed circuit board industry always works on implementing seemingly small innovations. It is important to note that the manufacturers do not consider the same things when choosing materials for flexible and rigid printed circuit boards. When it comes to flex PCBs, thermal management becomes integral, as well as the capability of bending the material. Apart from using improved materials, another way to enhance flexible boards is to come up with new technologies for the design and assembly process. The micro via technology is one of the latest major innovations in the industry.5. How to control the size of flexible PCB? The size of the microcircuit depends on the application but some of the key items that are important to many customers are: · Keeping a very tight outline tolerance.· Impedance values that can be held to +/-5% even in high volume applications.· Gold plating for use in connector terminal applications.· Using LPI solder mask on flexible substrate to keep solder mask damns intact.· Adding small stiffeners to allow one end of the material to be rigid.· Microcircuits require very fine line and spaces which requires specialized etching equipment.· In-house punch press and tooling manufacturing capabilities improves our time to market.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/18/2021 09:49
7 Types of Multilayer PCB Application in Our Daily Life
PCB plays a really important role in our daily life since technology has become essential to our daily life. And there are several applications of PCB that are used in our life. Being at the heart of most electrical devices today, they can come in various configurations which allow them to serve different purposes and provides various capabilities. As technology grows and develops, the need for PCBs will also grow. In this passage, we will tell you everything about the knowledge about multilayer PCB application. If you are interested in multilayer PCB application, please check and read the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 7 applications of PCB in daily life?1. Industrial Application The industrial sector benefits greatly from printed circuit boards, especially businesses with production lines and manufacturing facilities. Not only are these electronic components essential to the day-to-day processes, but they enable automation which can help businesses to save on costs and reduce human error. PCBs can be specifically designed to withstanding high-power applications and the demanding environments which the industrial sector needs. Here are some examples of where PCBs are used in the industrial sector: · Industrial Equipment: · Power Equipment: · Measuring Equipment2. Consumer Electronics Smart phones, computers and the many other consumer products that people use daily require PCBs to function. As we add electronics to more of our products, PCBs become a bigger part of our daily lives. Manufacturers are producing smaller and smaller smart phones and laptops that still have many advanced capabilities, which require small PCBs with a high volume of connections. P A huge range of consumer products use PCBs including: · Communications devices: Smart phones, tablets, smart watches, radios and other communications products require PCBs to function.· Computers: Computers for both personal and business feature PCBs.· Entertainment systems: Entertainment-related products such as televisions, stereos and video game consoles all rely on PCBs.· Home appliances: Many home appliances also have electronic components and PCBs including refrigerators, microwaves and coffee makers.3. Medical Devices Electronics contributes significantly to the health-care industry, functioning as diagnostic, monitoring and treatment devices. The medical applications of these electronic devices continue to grow as electronics evolves to become more efficient and dense, leading to endless new possibilities. At the heart of these medical devices are PCBs. PCBs within the medical industry are highly specialized in order to fit the unique constraints of medical devices. In many medical applications, a small package is needed to meet the size requirements for an implant or emergency room monitor.4. LED Also known as light-emitting diodes, LEDs are becoming an accessible lighting technology used for commercial and residential commercial lighting. Their usage is common across several industries such as the automotive field, computer, and medical sectors. A significant role that PCBs play in LED applications is by transferring heat away from the bulb. PCBs are used for LEDs compose of aluminum that is known for transferring heat, unlike other metals. LED PCBs are prevalent in storefront lighting, residential lighting, medical lighting, computer, and automotive displays.5. Automotive A few years back, cars consisted of a few electronic circuits, but such is not the case as of today. Unlike before, the new automotive sector now features cars that rely on a vast range of electronics and computerized components that offer more functionality. For example: Proximity Monitors. Media Equipment, Navigation, Control Systems.6. Industrial Components Nearly all industries rely on high-powered devices to control the mechanisms needed in production and manufacturing. Industrial components also rely on printed circuit boards to function. Typical uses of PCBs here include: Power Devices, Measuring Devices, Industrial Components.7. Telecommunications Printed circuit boards are very critical in the telecommunications sector. They are vital for consumer appliances such as tablets and smartphones since they are the infrastructure that enables such devices to function as desired. The telecom industry uses a wide variety of printed circuit boards since plenty of equipment relies on them for functionality.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/18/2021 09:43
5 PCB Assembly Instructions to Guarantee the Quality
For PCBA , all of the necessary information that describe how your board should be built in proper way. For assembly and design intent, you can optimize manufacturing efficiency by following a set of best practices that employ transparency and completely convey all necessary details within your assembly drawing or PCB assembly instructions. In this passage, we will tell you the main instructions of PCB assembly. And if you are interested in the methods to guarantee the quality of finished PCB, please check and read the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 main PCB assembly instructions?1. What are the requirements of PCB assembly? PCBA quality will depend on your CM’s manufacturing process, especially its adherence to industry standards. And while PCBA performance and reliable operation are primarily design issues, structural integrity and component mounting—as well as the mechanical ability of your boards to remain intact over their projected operational lifecycle—are CM responsibilities that define board quality and contribute significantly to operational reliability. PCB Assembly Instruction Requirements · Be sure to include the board revision and other identifiers, such as publishing date, that clearly distinguish this design.· Specify any components or areas of your board that need special attention—for example, polarization, moisture sensitivity and keep-outs.· Ensure that any process or readability requirements for silkscreen layer reference indicators, labels and markings are included.· Make sure that footprints on your PCB layout are accurate for the MPNs in your BOM component listing.2. What are the benefits of PCB assembly? These are some benefits of Automation PCB Assembly: Lower total costUsing automated PCB assembly means you can expect lower overall costs. Many SMT assemblers use the exclusive circuit board assembly program before actual production. This is to reduce the risk of errors and delays. Short product development cycleThe time invested in manual assembly may vary depending on the circuit board that produces inconsistent time frames for completion. Hand-assembled PCBs may take longer to develop, which can be counterproductive if you have several other operations that you could complete at the same time. Consistent qualityAs an automated machine is designed and programmed to perform the same task repeatedly, the precision and quality of the circuit boards can be better and more consistent than manual assembly.3. What are the special technologies during PCB assembly? With the development of modern science and technology, electronic products are becoming increasingly complex, driving complicated, integrated and smaller size PCB boards. It is almost impossible for PCBAs containing only one type of component taking part in. Most boards carry Thru-hole components and SMD components, which requires collaboration of thru-hole technology and surface mount technology. Nevertheless, soldering is a complicated process that tends to be affected by too many elements. With SMT printing technology, there will come novel manufacturing methods of printed circuit boards for better system integration, cost-saving, and lightweight boards. Additionally, SMT printing technology will bring about new assembly possibilities, shorter development times, and new assembly technologies.4. What is the overview of PCB assembly? · Solder Paste: If you’re following a traditional PCB assembly process, the first step is the application of solder paste.· Component Placement: In the traditional PCB assembly process, the next step is to place the components on the board.· Reflow: In the traditional PCB assembly process, the next step is reflow, which is when the solder is first melted and then resolidified.· Inspection: The next step in the traditional PCB assembly process is a visual inspection of the board, soldering, and components.· Through-Hole Part Insertion: The traditional process requires that through-hole insertion be done manually, after the reflow and inspection process. 5. What are the differences of PCBA(SMT) and SMD？ SMT stands for Surface Mount Technology, the entire technology of mounting and soldering electronic components, such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, integrated circuits, onto a printed circuit board or PCB. The components used are also referred to as surface-mount devices. It should be noted that SMT does not need to reserve corresponding through holes for component pins, and SMD is much smaller than through-hole insertion technology. Features of PCBA:· Components have no leads or only short leads· The main body of the component and the solder joint are on the same side of the PCB Features of SMD:· Miniaturization· No lead (flat or short lead)· Suitable for surface assembly on PCBWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/18/2021 09:29
How to Check Quality of PCB? & 5 tips of AOI Inspection Process
Automated optical inspection (AOI) is a machine-based technique used to test and check PCB for potential errors, such as surface defects, dimensional defects, as well as component placement defects. As the circuit board is more and more complicated, it’s hard and impossible to manually check the boards, needless to say, AOI plays an important role in checking the printed circuit board after assembly. What’s more, it does make a great effect on getting the necessary product quality in the production line with low cost. In this passage, we will provide you 5 tips of AOI inspection. And if you are curious about the quality checking of PCB manufacturing, please read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 tips about AOI to check the PCB quality?1. Know advantages of AOI? Positional accuracyAOI system should have sub-pixel accuracy as a rule-of-thumb, which make sure the there is enough accurate for the system to detect the small deviations in position that can result in a 01005 defect. Low costAOI test can improve the pass rate of PCB so that reduce the PCB cost. Multiple inspection objectsAOI test not only works well used in PCBs, but also for PCB assembly. As to PCB, it checks the defects, for example, shorts, opens and insufficient solder. Network capable softwareOne important function of any AOI system is data collection and retrieval. The data can be in the form of a text output, image collection, database, or a combination of several formats. Good FlexibilityAOI can be used in any stage of fabrication process based on the needs and cost tolerance capacity. As well as it can modify immediately the fabrication or assembly parameters to manufacture correctly the subsequent products.2. Why is AOI so popular? Printed circuit boards are an integral part of automated optical test inspection. When ordering the board, it should immediately correct its mistake. The financial implications of such things would be disheartening. As mentioned earlier, due to the increasing complexity of modern circuit boards, manual inspection has become obsolete. Know points to check the circuit board by soldering automation. Contemporary markets now require high volume, top-notch products that can reach their customers as fast as possible without compromising quality inspection. AOI is a fundamental tool in an electronics test strategy to ensure that faults are detected as fast as possible in production for products to reach the market in the shortest time possible.3. Notice defects of AOI In addition to the defects that can be detected by AOI (inner bare board and outer board), there are two main types of defects in structural loading boards that must be detected during final inspection: Defects on the surface: discoloration, uneven surface and foreign objects on or in the solder stop paint; Alignment problems of solder stop paint: the liner is over-shielded, the hole or line that should be covered is exposed, the area where the pad or hole should be exposed, and the area that should be protected by complete solder stop paint is incomplete.4. The typical AOI process Typical AOI inspection technologies currently used in circuit board manufacturing include: film inspection, drill inspection, hole location inspection, circuit inspection, blind hole inspection, bump inspection, visual inspection, etc. At present, the most used AOI inspection technology in the circuit board manufacturing industry is the inspection of the appearance of the circuit board. Although the size of the circuit characteristics of the circuit board has been reduced by more than ten times, the optical system and the matching hardware and software systems have also made great progress.5. AOI camera configuration The still image-camera system: We need to place it near the target PCB, and its effectiveness depends on the existence of the sound lighting system. The camera might need to be under the control of an audio software system to ensure efficacy. Streaming Video: This is also another type of camera used for optical inspection. From the streaming video, full-frame shots are taken and subsequently analyzed. Conclusion this approach is not definite as it is not so accurate compared with other alternatives, but it possesses an advantage of speed over others.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/17/2021 09:53
How to Prevent Solder Balls with 7 effective tips?
Solder balls are some of the most common PCB manufacturing defects. Solder balls after SMT reflow soldering are almost a common defect that occurs in the printed circuit board (PCB) assembly process. Several tinny balls surrounded along with the peripheral edge of the flux residue after reflowing is known as solder balls. In this article, follow us and get into the professional knowledge about solder balls. If you are curious about the methods of preventing the solder balls, please check and read the content to learn more information about it.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main reasons of solder balls? · Environment: The air humidity in the workshop is too high· People: tin remains during repair; tin beads are brought into the repair area; the steel plate is not clean by manual testing; the solder paste is not sufficiently stirred· Material: PCB is damp; solder paste metal content; solder paste particles are small and oxidized· Method: The amount of tin at the bottom of the component welding terminal is too large; the thickness of the steel mesh is too thick and collapses; the solder paste is turned on and the use time is not properly controlled, which absorbs water· Machine: The temperature rise slope of the reflow soldering is too high; the pressure during mounting is too high; the printing wipe is not clean; the printing squeegee pressure is too high How to Prevent Solder Balls with 7 effective tips?1. Open the steel mesh There is a lot of tin at the bottom of the component solder terminal, and it is squeezed on the solder mask after mounting to form a solder ball. What are the preventive measures: the steel mesh opens the anti-tin bead hole to improve and reduce the amount of tin2. Avoid the moisture of PCB PCB can retain moisture for some causes. Sometimes, storage in humid conditions causes water retention. At other times, the preheat temperature is not hot enough. As a result, the flux doesn't dry properly. To avoid the problems, store PCB in dry conditions. Take care so that moisture and water don't damage the PCB. Also, bake the PCB at 120 C for at least 4 hours before SMT manufacturing. The thickness of the PCB hole is also necessary. It should be enough to prevent the trapping of water.3. Process PCB aging control The PCB board is exposed to the air for too long 8-12H to absorb moisture and damp, which causes the moisture in the board to splash and form tin balls during reflow soldering. What are the preventive measures: increase the aging control 4H of the PCB board after opening to avoid moisture.4. Process the solder paste aging control When the solder paste is opened, there is a temperature difference between the solder paste temperature (0-10℃) and the ambient temperature (23±3℃), which can easily absorb moisture. When the solder paste is used, it is exposed to the air for too long for 8-12H to absorb moisture; it causes the moisture in the solder paste to be heated and splashed to form solder balls during reflow The solder paste is taken out from the refrigerator to 4H before opening, so that the temperature is consistent with the ambient temperature. During the use of tin green, follow the principle of small amounts and multiple times (addition in 1-2 hours).5. Pay attention to the missing solder mask It is the simplest mistake in SMT manufacturing. The absence of a solder mask between adjacent pads can lead to solder balls. Any manufacturer will not want that! The solution to this simple problem is also straightforward. You need to apply the solder paste properly on the PCB. Make sure you don't miss out on areas like spaces between pads. Using quality equipment can reduce the chances of this problem. It would help if you also used a slow preheat temperature rate. That will help spread the solder paste evenly on the PCB surface. It reduces the likelihood of creating gaps.6. Mention the proper pad spacing Proper pad placement is crucial for SMT manufacturing success. Otherwise, it can lead to the failure of your project. Additionally, you also have the risks of solder balls. The solder balls can cause shorts or even fall off. For this reason, proper placing of pads is essential. You need to adopt caution during the design phase. Design the pads in a way to maintain the required gaps between one another. Using a PCB designing solution makes the job easier. The stencil opening should also match the PCB design.7. Avoid stencil dimensions issues It would help if you used the right stencil for SMT manufacturing. The thickness of the stencil is of utmost importance. Stencils that are too thick can hamper soldering. It will also lead to the formation of solder balls. It would help if you chose the right stencil thickness. Consider your SMDs to select the right stencil width. Don't go for stencils that are too thick. Use relatively thin stencils. Additionally, keep an eye on stencil opening ratios and shapes. Any discrepancy here can result in solder balls.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/17/2021 09:44
How to Make LED PCB: 5 Tips of LED PCB Assembly
LED is an acronym for light emitting diode, which is semiconductor diodes. The LED is soldered to the printed circuit board and features a chip that creates the light as electrically connected. In general, the aluminum PCB contains a thin layer pf thermally conductive dielectric material that can transfer and dissipate the heat with much greater efficiency than a traditional rigid PCB. Like other semiconductor devices, PCB is the best method to electrically connect the LED components. And a PCB with LED components soldered is usually called as “LED PCB”. In this passage, we will provide you everything about the LED PCB assembly, if you are interested in LED PCB please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the 5 tips of LED PCB assembly?1. Knowing the types of aluminum in LED PCB assembly The aluminum base is usually the most common LED PCB. They show effective results and offer high performance. The conductive link between the Heat Sink and the IC is basically the thermally conductive dielectric layer of the aluminum base. Since there are different types of aluminum available serving different purposes, thus it is possible to have more specialized LED Printed Circuit boards. Below, we are going to shed some light on different types of Aluminum. · Types of Aluminum· Flexible Aluminum· Hybrid Aluminum· Multi-Layer Aluminum2. Get into the design rules of LED PCB For an LED PCB, you need to cater to two main aspects of the design. First, it is important to ensure that the LED sits within the circuit board’s drilled holes. Ensure that the holes are part of the design. Second, you need to focus on the distance between the holes. You need to save the file in the industry Standard format of the Printed Circuit Boards i.e. the Gerber File. Ensure that the Gerber files have the required number of layers. Each layer will be showing different aspects of the Printed Circuit Board. After you have the Gerber file, you need to create a text file that contains information regarding the layer content as well as the board dimensions. Pay close heed to the required voltage and ensure that the LED has the ability to withstand the power supply that you need to your Printed Circuit Boards.3. Avoid defects during LED PCB assembly The LED PCB assembly may suffer from gradual performance degradation, and it is challenging to identify its root cause. Your custom LED PCB may be subject to trace degradation, oxidation, incorrect copper weight, condensation, and solder flux corrosion. If you inconsistently apply solder paste, it can lead to short or open circuits in the LED PCB. If you use it in limited quantity, the solder joints will be more prone to rupture. If you haphazardly use it in excess, it may connect with the nearby connections and cause short circuits. In this case, you will burn not only the LED but also the sensitive nearby electrical components. You should make sure that the LED PCB does not get environmental contamination. Furthermore, you may also use electrical testing to find the location of the short and open circuits.4. Knowing the applications of LED PCB PCB LED lights have excellent energy efficiency, low cost and maximum design flexibility, so it can incorporated into numerous lighting applications. ComputerLED displays and indicators are more and more popular in the computer applications. And aluminum PCB LEDs are an ideal solution because of the heat sensitivity of computer machinery. Expect for LED applications, aluminum PCBs are also used for the computer parts. MedicalLighting tools used in surgeries and medical examinations commonly use high-powered LED lights, and these LED lights often use aluminum PCBs, which is primarily because of the durability and heat transfer capabilities of aluminum PCB LEDs. Expect for lighting tools, medical scanning technology often uses aluminum PCBs as well. AutomotiveAluminum PCB LEDs also are used for cars on indicators, brake lights and in headlights, as well as other applications. There are some factors making the aluminum PCBs be ideal within the automotive industry, such as the durability and competitive prices.5. Pay attention to the thermal issues during LED PCB assembly LEDs, diodes, and other electronic components in the LED PCB may produce heat while functioning. If they provide extreme hear, it can damage them or affect their performance. There must be some supplemental cooling to maintain their temperature within their safe, defined limits. One way is to use a heat sink in your LED PCB design. It will prevent overheating of any electronic devices. Heat sinks are optimized and designed to allow the electronic components to operate within the safe limits.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/17/2021 09:28
7 PCB Manufacturing Defects & How to Solve PCB Problem?
There are many challenges and defects during the whole PCB manufacturing process. PCB manufacturing defects and solutions being at the receiving end of a PCB failure can be annoying and dissatisfying. Understanding some of the common defects can help you perform some analysis and proffer solutions to ensure the quality and sustainability of cheap PCB. In this passage we will lead you to learn the PCB manufacturing defects and how to solve them. If you are going to get into the topic, please check and read the content below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main 7 PCB manufacturing defects and the solutions?1. Temperature & Moisture PCBs are affected by temperature, both in storage, and when they are installed in components. Extreme temperatures or large temperature fluctuations may cause components or joints to break or fail. Many people take the maximum or minimum safe temperature into consideration, without thinking about the fluctuations in temperature that may occur either during operation or in storage. Exposure to moisture, both during the manufacturing process and in storage, can cause shorts to occur and may lead to defects in components. Humidity in the air, as well as the moisture content in the solder can wreak havoc on printed circuit boards, causing corrosion.2. Plating Hole Defects Holes carry electricity from one side of the board to the other. Plating of the hole wall during manufacture. During this, If the copper deposition is incorrect, it will create plating voids, leaving gaps in the wall with no copper coating. It could happen due to air bubbles, contamination in the holes, contaminated materials, and other similar reasons. You can prevent this from happening by following the manufacturer’s direction and cleaning the equipment as instructed.3. Soldering Defects The bulk of printed circuit board defects can be traced back to a soldering issue. Soldering is a technical skill that becomes even more difficult when dealing with the extremely small components on a printed circuit board. Some of the most common soldering defects include: Open joints, sometimes called “dry joints,” occur when the solder doesn’t bond correctly with the point of contact, typically the pad. Occasionally, open joints are caused by using too much solder, which causes the component to lift. Shifts occur when the printed circuit board or component is not aligned correctly during the soldering process. Shifts can result in open joints, shorts, and crossed signal lines. Short circuits, often referred to simply as “shorts,” most often occur due to a soldering error called solder bridging.4. Lack of Solder Mask It is a common problem that accompanies PCB manufacturing at home or production PCB manufacturing. The error is small, therefore challenging to identify. If these shorts go undetected, they can damage the complete assembly by burning up the components. One standard solution is adding a solder mask between pads, so there is no gap between the stencil and PCB.5. Electrostatic Discharge Defects Defects caused by electrostatic discharge can be extremely frustrating, since they are not always easy to detect. Latent failures caused by electrostatic discharge, or ESD, can cause significant cost increases due to the return or repair of the damaged unit. Electrostatic discharge can even cause shorts to occur by creating enough heat to soften solder. Electrostatic discharge is caused by both human and machines, and can happen during nearly every point in the manufacturing and assembly processes.6. Substrate Size Defects The change in size of substrate weft/warp is difference in direction. This occurs because of not paying any attention to the direction of fiber which is resulting in residual stress inside the board’s base, when released its direct impact is on the shrinkage of size of substrate.The best possible solution to this problem is determining the change rule of direction of weft/warp as per the compensation of shrinkage of the film. Trim it at same time as per the direction of processing of fiber.7. Copper Foil Etching Defects Sometimes a part of the substrate’ copper foil is etched away due to the restrictions because of changing the substrate for producing dimensional changes when stress is relieved.The best solution for the problem is during the process of designing the circuit board, it must be tried to make the board in even distribution. If this is not possible, then some space for transition must be left which would not affect the circuit. This is due to the reason that plank structure of the cloth of glass and density difference of weft is leading to the differences in intensity of longitude to latitude of plank.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/16/2021 09:32
5 Best Solder Tip for PCB - How to Do PCB Soldering?
PCB soldering is another term for the process of soldering electrical circuit boards. This type of soldering is one of the most basic techniques that anyone wishing to work with electronics and electrical circuits must learn. While there are many different ways you can complete the soldering process, the most basic explanation of the soldering process is that it’s a way of joining two small pieces together on the surface of the PCB, which stands for PCB. In other words, soldering is a way of connecting two or more different electrical components on your circuit board. In this passage, we will focus on the best solder on PCB, if you are going to learn the knowledge of it, please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the different technologies of PCB soldering? Soft Soldering Soft soldering is a process used for attaching small components onto the larger PCB. These small components will usually have a low-liquefying temperature that will begin to break down under the high temperatures of the heat source. Rather than simply melting the component, however, an additional step must be used to attach the component to the board. In this case, this extra step is a filler metal, which is typically a tin-lead alloy. Hard Soldering Hard soldering is a process that uses a solid solder to join two different metal elements together by spreading throughout the holes of the components that become unlocked as they’re exposed to high temperatures. As a process, hard soldering is made up of two smaller sub-processes known as silver soldering and brazing. What are the 7 tips of processing best PCB solder?1. What is the difficulty of best PCB soldering? Here’s the problem: Training focuses on the desired appearance of solder rather than how the connection is achieved. And “acceptable” appearance may hide failures in waiting. How the connection was made determines not only whether the solder connection itself is reliable but whether catastrophic damage was inflicted on the component being soldered. At soldering iron temperature, solder will stick to oxides and contaminants to produce a visually acceptable connection.2. What are the PCB soldering defects? The ban on lead in electronics changed our business profoundly by eliminating tin/lead component surfaces. Meanwhile, tin plating has become increasingly uncommon because of concerns about tin whiskers with pure tin. The new component surfaces are not tin or tin/lead; they are metals with higher melting temperatures that do not reflow during application of the solder. In other words, these are metals that are soldered, not reflowed. And the surfaces must be thoroughly deoxidized before solder is applied.3. How to avoid soldering bridge? A solder bridge is formed when two points on the circuit board that should not be electrically connected are inadvertently connected by solder during PCB soldering. This will form an electrical short circuit, which may cause various damages, depending on the circuit structure. A solder bridge can be fixed by holding your solder iron in the middle of the bridge to melt the solder, and drawing it through to break the bridge. If the solder bridge is too large, excess solder can be removed a solder sucker.4. What is the diameter of PCB best soldering? The gauge number determines the diameter of the solder. A gauge number is a unit of thickness for metal sheets and wires. For amateur and hobbyists, gauge numbers 18, 20, and 21 are the numbers that work well. The diameters of these numbers are 1.22, 0.914, and 0.813 mm, respectively. Staying in this range is a good idea for amateurs and beginners. Using wires of this diameter reduces solder wastage.5. How to base on chemical contents of PCB best soldering? Using these materials enables you to personalize the solder based upon your requirements. There are only three primary categories of solders to which you can narrow your search. · Lead solders were, for a long time, the go-to substance in the electronics industry. The most commonly existing blend is the 60/40 (tin/lead) blend. Tin helps maintain a lower melting point. · Lead-free solders have started gaining popularity. The primary reason is the fact that the EU restricted the use of lead in electronics. In countries like the US, manufacturers receive tax relief for using lead-free solders. · Flux core solder, sold as a single reel, consists of a reducing agent at the core. During the process of soldering, the flux gets released. This flux reduces the metal at the point of contact, which results in a cleaner and neater connection.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/16/2021 09:22
5 Challenges of Etching PCB Boards at Home
There are many advantages of etching your own circuit boards at home. You could get prototype PCB quickly after etching and it’s also convenient. Copper is removed from the board except at the places where wired connections are present. The advantages include de-cluttering of the system and ease of seeing the connections and an increase in usability and portability. In this passage, we will tell you everything about the DIY PCB etching. You can find all the knowledge of etching PCB at home. If you are curious about this topic, please check and read the passage we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why is etching PCB at home difficult？ To hand make a PCB, an engineer must first build the PCB and etch out the copper traces. Best practices dictate copper traces be etched by submerging the PCB into a fluid compound of ferric chloride to dissolve the top layer of photoresist and reveal the traces beneath. Moreover, these traces must be equally exposed across every PCB build to prevent stray variables from sparking an error or malfunction. In addition, as etchant becomes saturates with copper it becomes increasingly ineffective, which makes consistent etching by hand even more difficult. What are the considerations for etching PCB at home? You can etch a PCB by yourself, in a lab or even at home, through a simple and inexpensive production process. It makes sense when you wish to produce a single or a very small number of boards and want to avoid manufacturing costs. The etching process is therefore effective for a small workshop. There are however some issues to consider: 1. There is a risk of injuries due to the chemicals involved. 2. The quality of the results depends on several factors which you won't be able to master completely the first time. This can be somewhat compensated by using good machinery. 3. There is the problem of waste disposal. Toxic chemicals require a proper disposal service.To learn how to etch a PCB, make sure that your Fritzing PCB design is complete and exported as an etchable PDF or SVG, then follow these instructions. What are the 5 challenges during the etching PCB at home? 1. The PCB application could not be determined Etching printed circuit boards are highly related to the function or the role of the PCB. Engraving gets rid of excess copper to reveal the predetermined desired circuit pattern. There are several PCB etching processes that designers use. You choose all of these depending on the function of the PCB. Unfortunately, though, plenty of PCB enthusiasts don’t understand that etching a PCB is related to the purpose of the PCB. To ensure the quality of your PCB, DIY at home is difficult to guarantee. 2. We don’t have professional equipment to process During the PCB etching process, it is necessary to prepare kinds of professional equipment. Unfortunately, a majority of DIY PCB enthusiasts lack the professional equipment necessary for carrying out PCB etching on their own. For example, if you don’t have rubber gloves, your hand may end up getting strained. Therefore, having the right equipment is essential to etch a PCB that will function as desired. 3. It’s difficult to control the etching time During the etching process, there is a need for several chemicals when creating the proposed layout. Copper etching a PCB requires reagents such as Ferric Chloride and Ammonium. Besides, if you want to ensure that the etching process runs smoothly, you must control the etching reagent at specific temperatures in certain time. 4. The process is too complex to control It is a highly complicated process that, when done wrong, may lead to the production of ineffective printed circuit boards. Since etching PCB is not an easy process, as you may imagine. Do you have the necessary tools and chemical reagents essential for etching your printed circuit boards? How do you specify the thickness of your PCB when making it by yourself? You may need to seek a professional's services for assistance. 5. The PCB coating will be destroyed Professional PCB makers understand how to develop glossy PCB surfaces that come with plenty of benefits. The most significant difference between a gloss finish on a PCB and a matte finish is more aesthetically. By hiring a professional, you’ll be in a better position of being provided with a PCB containing a high-quality gloss finish. However, by etching PCB at home, you’ll lose the gloss of your PCB's coatings. Conclusion As explained above, apparently making PCB at home looks pretty simple, and it is just a matter of a few hours to create outstanding professional grade PCBs using ready to made DIY materials from the market. That said, the process may require some caution and precision for achieving the desired results, so that the intended circuit project is accomplished successfully.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/16/2021 09:14
7 Advantages of ENIG PCB Finish to Guarantee the Quality
The ENIG is a common acronym that stands for Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold. As the hot air solder leveling, it is also a surface finish of the printed circuit board industry. The ENIG got its name because it comprises electroless nickel plating, which is coated with a slim layer of immersion gold. Continuously, it has secured market share resulting from its ability to be flexible in various component assembly processes. In this article, we will tell you all the advantages of ENIG of the PCB manufacturing process. If you are going to learn the professional knowledge of ENIG, please check and read the content we prepare for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the process of ENIG in PCB manufacturing? ENIG process or PCB immersion gold is one of the most straightforward means to undertake. In this process, the vias and surfaces that are intended for the final finish/production first have a nickel layer that’s applied to the copper through an electroless process as a means of creating a diffusion barrier. In the second step, there’s the application of a fragile gold finish. The gold prevents nickel from oxidation while significantly determining the solderability of the surface. When should I use ENIG technology? There are plenty of reasons why you may need to use ENIG technology over other forms of surface finish technology that you may have at your disposal. For instance, if you want to use ENIG technology, you will have printed circuit boards that have a long shelf life. Additionally, if you are going to have hassle-free solderability, you may find it necessary to use ENIG technology instead of other forms of technology available for you. ENIG technology also comes with the promise of less oxidation, low contact resistance, high strength, and antifriction. With ENIG technology, the printed circuit board’s surface becomes easy to treat, not forgetting that this technology provides excellent plating around the holes in the PCB. What are the main 7 advantages of ENIG in PCB manufacturing?1. Flat Surface The ability to perfectly fit into flat surfaces is another advantage associated with ENIG. ENIG plating is lately turning out and becoming a popular surface finish preferred by many PCB manufacturers. ENIG consists of a double layer metallic coating consisting of nickel that acts both as a surface and a barrier to which designers can solder the components.2. Easy to soldering Based on different crystal structure those get formed by both Gold plating and ENIG. Additionally, welding ENIG does not bring about welding defects based on the fact that ENIG is a bit softer than Gold plating. It is easy to control the stress in immersion gold as opposed to Gold plating.3. Widely applications Unlike other types of solutions that may fail to function as desired across several electronic products, something good about ENIG PCB is that it can perfectly fit across various electronic products with much ease. Last but not least, another notable advantage associated with ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold) surface coating is that it finds much use in a variety of electronic products from computer motherboards to wearables, and medical appliances, among others.4. Non-require electroplating ENIG is best known for being corrosion-resistant, and a common type of plating commonly used when it comes to the manufacture of printed circuit boards. As mentioned earlier, ENIG consists of a gold layer on top of a nickel layer.5. Lead-free Another significant advantage associated with immersion gold or ENIG is that it is lead-free, meaning that manufacturers are not exposed to harmful chemicals when using it as a surface finish on PCBs. Since regular exposure to high lead levels may bring about several complications such as brain and kidney damage and body weakness.6. Long guarantee period The reason is that such finishes come with the promise of a long shelf life that lasts up to 12 months or more. The type of finish used in the manufacture of a printed circuit board determines the shelf life of aboard in months. Depending on the type of finish used, a printed circuit board will last 6, 12, or even more than a year. Unlike other surface finishes used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, most printed circuit board manufacturers mainly prefer to use ENIG PCB finishes.7. Good oxidation resistance ENIG surface plating consists of electroless nickel plating covered with thin layers of immersion gold that protect the nickel from any oxidation. Experienced and high-quality printed circuit board manufacturers in the market for PCB surface finishes always look for surface finishes resistant to oxidation. Another significant advantage associated with ENIG surface finish is that such a finish offers excellent oxidation resistance, unlike other surface finishes.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 09/15/2021 10:06
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