How to Design Aluminum PCB for Beginners in PCB Industry?
Aluminum is one alternative material that can be used in the core of a PCB, commonly referred to using the misnomer “aluminum pcb”. Using aluminum as the metal core in a PCB allows it to easily dissipate heat away from active components thanks to its high thermal conductivity. The high thermal conductivity of aluminum or another metal in the core of a PCB allow heat to be distributed more uniformly throughout a board. How to design aluminum PCB? As a beginner of PCB industry, please check and read the passage to learn the information of aluminum PCB.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the advantages of aluminum PCB? Aluminum boards are one of the most thermally conductive PCB options. They keep as much heat away from vital components as possible to ensure minimal circuit damage. Thanks to their high heat tolerance, they can handle higher density circuits and larger power levels. Substrates created from aluminum alloys have a high level of physical durability that lowers the risk of breakage. Compared to other metals, aluminum has a lower environmental impact in addition to a reasonable cost. On the other hand, aluminum PCBs tend to have more niche uses than standard boards. While they cost less than adding conductors to a copper board, they have a higher price than standard PCBs without those components. Investing in an aluminum core may not pay off if your application doesn’t involve high temperatures. If you plan on creating a flex circuit, an aluminum flex PCB can only flex into its initial position. It will bend to fit into smaller electronics, but it won’t withstand the stress of vibration. Low CostAluminum is a metal that can be found in a variety of climates, so it is easy to mine and refine. Therefore, the costs of doing so are significantly lower than other metals. In turn, this means that manufacturing products with these metals are less expensive as well. Environmentally FriendlyAluminum is non-toxic and recyclable. Manufacturing with aluminum is also conducive to conserving energy due to its ease of assembly. For printed circuit board a supplier, using this metal helps maintain the health of our planet. What are the classifications and features of aluminum PCB? Aluminum PCBs are essentially divided into three categories. · Universal Aluminum PCB: the dielectric layer used here is made up of epoxy glass fiber pre-preg.· High Thermal-Conductive Aluminum PCB:the dielectric layer is made up of epoxy resin. The resin used must have high thermal conductivity.· High-frequency Aluminum PCB:the dielectric layer is composed of polyolefin or polyimide resin glass fiber pre-preg. Thermal DissipationThe performance of aluminum PCBs while dissipating heat is quite well as compared to ordinary FR4 PCBs. For example, a FR4 PCB that is 1.5mm thick will have thermal resistance of 20-22 degrees per watt whiles a aluminum PCB 1. 5mm thick will have a thermal resistance of 1-2 degrees per watt.Thermal Expansion: each substance has its own coefficient of thermal expansion. The CTE of aluminum (22ppm/C) and copper(18ppm/C)is quite close. Since aluminum PCBs work well in terms of Thermal dissipation they do not have severe expansion or contraction issues. They work excellently and are durable and reliable. Dimensional StabilityAluminum PCBs show dimensional stability and stable size. For example, when they are heated from 30-140 degrees, their size only had a change by 2.5%-3.0%.Others: Aluminum PCBs can be used in power device surface mount technology. They are effective for use in circuit design because of their performance in terms of thermal expansion of circuit design. They help to prolong products shelf life and product power density. They are also extremely reliable. They can help to shrink the overall volume of the product and is also a cheaper option. They show electromagnetic shielding and high dielectric strength. What is aluminum PCB used for? The numerous benefits offered by aluminum boards makes them popular among a variety of applications. Following are a few benefits: Light-weight· This is one of the biggest advantages of these PCBs. Aluminum is extremely light-weight metal. Thus, it helps add extra strength and resilience to the PCB. Able to Dissipate HeatWhenever the vital components on a circuit board are exposed to high temperatures they can get damaged. Thus, to protect them from such damage, it is necessary to use a material that can dissipate the heat. Aluminum is the material, which has the capability to take the heat generated away from the vital components on the board, thus protecting them from any potential damage.Long Lasting Aluminum is a sturdy material with high durability. The risk of accidental breakage during handling, manufacturing, or everyday use is eliminated by using aluminum circuit boards. It can provide better strength to a product as compared to fiberglass and ceramic bases.Environmentally Friendly Aluminum PCBs are easy to assemble, which helps in conserving energy. Besides this, the material is recyclable and non-toxic. This makes it environmentally friendly, and thus aids in safeguarding our planet. EconomicalYou can find aluminum in almost any climatic conditions, which makes it easier to mine and refine. This helps reduce the costs. Thus, the manufacturing process, which involves aluminum is comparatively cheaper than other metals.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 02/03/2023 17:03
How to Route USB PCB of All Probably Problems?
Your USB PCB can cause errors or malfunction if you have a defective USB port. First, you need to determine whether the problem is with the port or the device. Plugin your device into another USB port and check if it works. If it does, then you can be sure that the USB port is out of order. If your device still doesn’t work, then it’s not the fault of the USB port. How to make USB PCB? In this passage, we are going to provide all the information about USB PCB, please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. Why should you use USB? There are so many reasons to use USB-C, here are in my opinion the top 5 reasons why you should use the USB-C connector in your projects. · Is increasingly used in different types of devices, it is the new standard when it comes to device connectors. · The USB-C connector is more durable due to its design than a micro USB-B connector. · Greater compatibility for new fast-charging standards. · USB-C can carry multiple signals simultaneously in addition to the standard USB signals (Vbus, D +, D-, GND). · It is capable of carrying higher voltages and currents than the USB-B connector. Where can USB PCB are found? USB ports and plugs were developed to simplify the process of connecting multiple different USB devices and peripherals to computers. While many older port types are still in widespread use today (especially for legacy hardware), fewer new peripherals are being manufactured that rely on them. In their place, USB interface connectors have quickly become a near-ubiquitous feature. Today, you will find USB connections in almost all types of electronics and communications hardware, from laptops and mobile phones to printers, microphones and headphones, and even cars. In short, almost every device that includes a PCB (printed circuit board) will likely have at least one type of USB port on it somewhere. PCB USB connectors and related components are cheap to buy, and easy to mount in a variety of ways including panel, surface, through-hole and cable mount. It is also worth noting that many device types also now support a newer standard called USB On-The-Go (USB OTG), which enables certain products to switch between host and device roles. A common example would be a mobile phone, which can act as both a mass storage device itself and a USB reader for importing data from external peripherals. What are the types of USB PCB connector? A wide range of USB PCB connectors is available to suit various applications. Some of the common types of connectors include- Vertical Mount PlugYou will find vertical mount USB PCB connectors made to fix them to a PCB vertically. You can mount these vertical plugs through various methods like through-hole or soldering. These plugs are ideal for cradle mounting applications. You can use them for charging multiple devices like smartphones and computers. Vertical Through HoleThese connectors have a vertical orientation, just like vertical mount plugs. The terminations of the USB connectors pass through the plated thru holes of the PCB before fixing. Vertical through-hole connectors offer a narrow footprint for space-restricted applications. Mid-MountMid-Mount PCB connectors are suitable for low-profile consumer electronics. You find them useful when you are concerned about the height over and below the PCB. You can mount the connectors in the middle portion of the PCB using surface mount or through-hole method. Top MountYou can fasten the top mount USB connectors using the terminating leads on the top side of the PCB. Generally, you find the Top mount connectors onto the contact pads. What are the problems of USB PCB? Ordinary USB device differential line signal line width and line spacing can be consistent with the entire PCB board signal line width and line spacing. However, when the USB device works at 480 Mbits/s, it is not enough to do the above. We also need to control the impedance of the differential signal. Controlling the impedance of the differential signal line is very important for the integrity of the high-speed digital signal. You can try the following- · Check and clean if any dirt has accumulated on the USB port.· Do a physical check to see if the port is loose or broken.· Restart your computer/laptop and see if the port works· Check your device manager and uninstall the USB Host Controller.· Replace USB port if everything else failsWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 02/02/2023 18:12
What is Solderability Test in PCB Manufacturing to Guarantee Quality?
Solderability test on a printed circuit board is critical. If you fail to undertake some tests, then you are inviting trouble. There’s nothing riskier and expensive than rolling out faulty boards to the market. You can avoid such by only undertaking solderability tests. So what’s the importance of the PCB solderability test? Do you know the importance of PCB solderability test and how to process it? In this passage we are providing all the information of PCB solderability test, if you are searching for more knowledge of PCB solderability test please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the types of PCB solderability test? Three of the most common solderability testing formats are: · “Dip and look” method· The surface mount simulation test· Wetting balance analysis 1. DIP AND LOOKDip and look subjects the leads and terminations to up to 8 hours of steam conditioning, accelerating the aging process. (This is why skin doctors warn against saunas and hot showers!) Next, testers dip the components into solder using activated rosin flux. Finally, they’re inspected to ensure they meet requirements. 2. SURFACE MOUNT SIMULATION TESTThe surface mount simulation test is available for all surface mount technology (SMT) components, including ones that can’t use other types of PCB testing methods like dip and look. A specific solder paste is screen-printed onto a ceramic plate. The component then goes into the paste and is subjected to a convection reflow profile. 3. WETTING BALANCE ANALYSISWetting balance analysis also ages the components to measure the wetting forces. The testers plot the wetting force, starting at negative (nonwet). Solderability is measured as the amount of time it takes for wetting to occur. What is the equipment of PCB solderability test? The right tools and equipment are one of those factors which will see you staying relevant in a competitive environment. Without a doubt, one of the essential tools that you must have is the soldering iron. A soldering iron provides the heat source to melt the solder. But again, the soldering iron doesn’t need to be expensive as such. If you look around, you’ll find some that go for as little as $10. Besides the soldering iron, other tools that you may need during soldering include the following: Solder Flux The Solder Flux acts as a purifying agent, and it purifies the components while closing out extra air to prevent rust. The Solder Flux is one of the essential tools to have at hand when soldering. Manufacturers love it as it goes further to better the dripping individuality of the solder itself. Solder Paste Solder Paste joins various leads of chip packages to connection ends of boards. The solder paste appears like a gray putty-like substance. During soldering, the paste joins the multiple charges of chip packages to the connection ends on a PCB. Solder suckers Solder suckers also go by the name solder pumps. These mechanical vacuum pumps suck solder away from solder joints. They enable the removal of solder from a joint for components desoldering for rework. Wire cutters Even though they tend to be small, wire cutters are convenient tools. You can use the wire cutter to cut off long component legs. Also, you can use these wire cutters to strip the end of the wires. Wire cutters again go by names such as diagonal cutters, flush-cutters, clippers, electronic snippers, and more. Soldering iron tip cleaner Soldering tip cleaners are necessary during soldering. They are for cleaning iron tips from any old solder or carbon accumulation. If you want your soldering iron to last for long, then you’ll need soldering iron tip cleaners. Desoldering Wick Manufacturers use this to clean the leftovers of solder that remained behind during soldering. A desoldering wick is a finely braided copper wire. The copper wire has a rosin coating flux that can finely remove excess copper. Circuit board holder It is the perfect equipment for holding the PCB into place during soldering. Some refer to this equipment as a soldering helping hand and comes in handy when soldering adequate equipment. The circuit board holder fixes the objects at the required angles for soldering. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 02/01/2023 11:38
What Are the 5 Types of Common PCB Component Failure?
Electronic component failure is when a component is not functioning or performing as expected. It eventually damages the product. These defects may result in a complete breakdown or degradation in the performance of the device. It is crucial to perform root-cause analysis to find out the failure modes of components. This research requires some information that includes: · Circuit board design data including dimensions, stresses, loads, etc.· Parts, material, and process specifications.· Manufacturing process reports involving chemical analyses, mechanical properties, inspections, and performance testing.· Information related to working environments.· Maintenance record comprising vibration analysis and previous failures. In this passage, we are going to tell you about PCB Component Failure, please check and read the content below of PCB Component Failure.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How to Prepare factors for the PCB component placement? The primary objective of PCB development is to design a PCB that functions and performs as intended. However, it is equally, if not more, important for a design to be manufacturable. Of course, various determining factors may affect PCB manufacturability, including: Components: If a component is distinctive or challenging to acquire, it will increase the cost of manufacturing. Moreover, if the lead times on some components incur delays in production, it will increase costs. Placement: Component placement affects how you manufacture a PCB and whether you can even manufacture a PCB. Improper component placement can dramatically increase board costs. In fact, design decisions as simple as the orientation of a component can affect its solderability. Layout: The schematic layout places component placement and other considerations at the center of your design process. However, failure to account for possible connections or interfaces with other PCBs will increase overall system manufacturing costs. What are the common PCB Component Failures? Electronic component failure is when a component is not functioning or performing as expected. It eventually damages the product. These defects may result in a complete breakdown or degradation in the performance of the device. Unprotected ComponentsCircuit boards are subjected to various conditions before being installed for operation. These include board fabrication, PCB assembly, shipping and storage. During all of these phases, the possibility of contamination exists. For the manufacturing of critical boards—such as those used in some medical device applications—ionic contamination can be a major problem. During shipping and storage, unprotected boards are subject to oxidation and other contamination that may eventually lead to a premature board and/or component failure. Moisture Sensitive ComponentsOne of the major sources of contamination that threaten electronic components on circuit boards is moisture. Moisture can be acquired during component and/or board manufacturing. Additionally, condensation can occur on the board and within component packages. This is most common when boards are stored in packaging where internal temperatures are colder than the external environment. Certain components are more susceptible to moisture than others and this should be a consideration when making your selections. Temperature Sensitive ComponentsPCBAs are installed everywhere these days. This includes extreme environments where temperature, pressure and corrosion can affect the operation, damaging boards and components. For example, components used for aerospace electronics must be able to withstand temperatures that range from very cold (as low as minus 184° F in the thermosphere) to severely hot (approximately 5,792° F during a rocket launch). When selecting these components, especially when a COTS solution is implemented, thermal sensitivity must be a major concern. Components Vulnerable to Power SurgesExcessive heat on circuit boards can cause several failure mode issues. These include structural fatigue and spikes in the current flow. The latter can also be due to power supply surges or, in the case of high voltage PCBAs used in industrial applications, arcing. Irrespective of the source, large currents can wreak havoc on boards and destroy vulnerable unprotected components. What are the inspection techniques to avoid PCB Component Failures? A contract manufacturer will be dealing with parts that have either been ordered out of a catalog of parts, or a part that has been specifically built by a manufacturer for customers that request them. For any of these new parts, there should be a full, first-article inspection process in place that will do the following: · Take sample measurements of the part.· Have the part reviewed and approved by a quality engineer to match up with the posted specifications.· Maintain a file for this and all other first-article parts for future reference.· In some rare cases for specialty parts, conduct an electrical test of the part with the help of the CM’s test department for a test fixture and procedure.· The more unique the part is—and for those that are custom-ordered for a specificapplication—the more thorough the inspection process should be. The inspection results should also be fed back to the manufacturer for their records. Once a relationship has been built with a supplier of standard components, the parts may no longer need to be subjected to the same level of inspection. This should follow a documented criteria for inspection that will specify what needs to happen before a component and its supplier becomes a trusted part and vendor. For instance, if a standard catalog part is received five times from the same originator or supplier and there isn’t a rejection, the moisture barrier packaging may no longer need to be opened for incoming inspections. This trusted relationship is vital with incoming components so that the components can stay in their protected packaging until they are needed for a PCBA build.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/29/2023 14:55
How to the Attach Heat Sink to PCB through 7 Methods?
Heat sink PCB is a type of circuit board that can dissipate high surface temperatures. Power semiconductors, diodes, and resistors are the causes of this temperature. This type of PCB is becoming popular in the world today. Most printed circuit boards feature a heat sink. Heat sink PCBs are one of the best forms of thermal management. This circuit board works by dissipating heat from critical components. Heat sink PCB is ideal for use in applications that generate heat. This PCB absorbs or dissipates heat when the heat affects the device. And if you are searching for more information about heat sink to PCB, please check and read for more information in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How to heat sink to PCB with hardware？ There are many ways to attach a heat sink to a device. The most commonly used methods include thermal tapes, push pins, spring loaded screws and clips. Thermal TapesDouble-sided thermal adhesive tapes are a quick and inexpensive way to stick a heat sink to the device. This method usually works quite well if (1) the heat sink is small and light, (2) the top surface of the device is adequately flat, and (3) a good thermal tape is used. However, for heavy heat sinks or for systems that need to pass shock and vibration test, thermal tapes are not secure enough, and the weight added to the device may even damage the device under shock or strong vibration. In addition, thermal tapes also perform as an interface material (TIM) but their thermal impedances are often much higher than other good TIMs. Push PinsSpring loaded push pins provide an easy and precise way to attach a heat sink to the device and the printed circuit board. The pressure between the heat sink and the device can be calculated and controlled by choosing the right spring. The most reliable push pins are made of spring steels and they work great at high temperature or in harsh environment. Plastic (Nylon) push pins are cost effective alternatives when the temperature in a system does not constantly exceed the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the plastic. What are the types of PCB heat sink？ Heat sinks are available in various types. Each of these types has its function. However, they share some common characteristics or features. Heat sinks are mostly made from metal like aluminum or copper. The commonest designs for a heat sink are the fin layout. Some versions utilize stamping and pins to increase the surface area and heat transfer rate. Passive heat sinkA passive heat sink doesn’t feature additional products while cooling a component. It isn’t assisted by additional processes. These heat sinks don’t have any mechanical components. They dissipate heat through the convection process. When you use this heat sink on PCB, it gives reliable results. Experts recommend that engineers should maintain the flow of air across the fins of this heat sink. Passive heat sinks serve as a standalone solution since they don’t use other cooling methods. These heat sinks are bigger than active heat sinks. Passive heat sinks disperse absorbed heat via the direct contact between them. Active heat sinkThis type of heat sink uses additional products to enhance its cooling capacity. Active heat sinks use powered processes like water pumps and fans. These processes or products help to increase the heat transfer rate. In some electronic systems, these coolers run off the internal power supply. This type of heat sink isn’t ideal for long-term applications. This is because it has moving parts. What are the challenges of PCB heat sink？ The pressing of the circuit board with the heat sink turns out to be a challenge in both processes. The areal distribution of the thermal adhesive without air pockets between the two components was previously an unsolved problem and is particularly due to the low flow properties of the thermal adhesive. A sufficient distribution was achieved by pressing on with so-called pressure pins, but this method is only suitable to a limited extent. The result was often that, in particular in the case of thin and large-area ceramic substrates, the punctual and thus excessive force action resulted in the ceramic board breaking. What are the methods of balancing the PCB heat sink？ The design of a PCB is a very complex process. The importance of heat sinks in PCB can’t be overstressed. Engineers need to consider some factors when implementing a heat sink on PCB. Heat sinks transmit thermal energy from electronic components into a cooling medium. Heatsink PCBs are understood as PCBs that are able to dissipate high surface temperatures. Generally, these temperatures are caused by power semiconductors (transistors, thyristors, diodes and LEDs) as well as resistors. The following methods are suitable to dissipate the heat:• The use of heat transfer compounds• Higher copper thicknesses• Heat dissipation using a metal core• Heat dissipation using a metal heat-conducting plate What are the applications of PCB heat sink？ Heat sink PCBs are used in several applications due to the functions they perform. These circuit boards are ideal for high-performance applications. They are also suitable for use in devices that produce a high amount of heat. LEDsHeat sink PCBs are commonly used in Light-emitting diodes (LED). These PCBs provide effective cooling for LED pcb. Heat sink circuit boards prevent excess heat from damaging LEDs. Most high-power LEDs feature heat sink PCBs. ComputersHeat sink PCBs are a common component of computers. The CPU of computers needs a heat sink. Electrical activity in the CPU produces a good amount of heat. This may cause damage to the chipset. A heat sink helps to offer a good path for heat to pass through. The CPU comes with a heat sink. Some manufacturers use a particular type of heat sink for their CPUs. Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/13/2023 16:58
How Does an Integrated Circuit Work in PCB Manufacturing Industry?
Integrated circuits are a combination of diodes, microprocessors, and transistors in a minimized form on a wafer made of silicon. Each of these components has a specific function. These can perform calculations and multiple tasks when combined with each other. In this passage, we are looking for more professional knowledge. If you are searching for the information about integrated circuit work in PCB, please check and read t he content in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main factors of integrated circuit in PCB? An integrated circuit represents a single fabricated unit containing an assembly of electronic parts or components. The miniaturized passive devices such as resistors and capacitors, besides the active devices like diodes and transistors and their interconnections, get built on the thin semiconductor substrate (mostly silicon). It ensures that the resulting chip is of a tiny size. Diodes – These are electronic devices working to control the flow of current in the circuit. Diodes also control the direction of the current in which they only allow the current to flow in certain paths. Transistors – These components are used to store voltages or circuit stabilizer. They can be utilized to amplify the given signal and used as switches working in digital circuits. They can allow a certain amount of voltage into the circuit with the use of a gate to open at a particular voltage. Microprocessors – These components are the most important part of the integrated circuit. This is intended to provide memory to the system. Likewise, it gives memory to perform calculations and follow a certain protocol or logic. This tells the microprocessor to process the data and electricity within the system. So it becomes the operating system of an integrated circuit, allowing the components to interact with one another. What is the history of integrated circuit in PCB? Open up a television or a radio and you'll see it's built around a printed circuit board (PCB): a bit like an electric street-map with small electronic components (such as resistors and capacitors) in place of the buildings and printed copper connections linking them together like miniature metal streets. Circuit boards are fine in small appliances like this, but if you try to use the same technique to build a complex electronic machine, such as a computer, you quickly hit a snag. Even the simplest computer needs eight electronic switches to store a single byte (character) of information. So if you want to build a computer with just enough memory to store this paragraph, you're looking at about 750 characters times 8 or about 6000 switches—for a single paragraph! If you plump for switches like they had in the ENIAC—vacuum tubes about the size of an adult thumb—you soon end up with a whopping great big, power-hungry machine that needs its own mini electricity plant to keep it running. You've probably read in books that ICs were developed jointly by Jack Kilby (1923–2005) and Robert Noyce (1927–1990), as though these two men happily collaborated on their brilliant invention! In fact, Kilby and Noyce came up with the idea independently, at more or less exactly the same time, prompting a furious battle for the rights to the invention that was anything but happy. How could two people invent the same thing at exactly the same time? Easy: integrated circuits were an idea waiting to happen. By the mid-1950s, the world (and the military, in particular) had discovered the amazing potential of electronic computers and it was blindingly apparent to visionaries like Kilby and Noyce that there needed to be a better way of building and connecting transistors in large quantities. Meanwhile, at another company called Fairchild Semiconductor (formed by a small group of associates who had originally worked for the transistor pioneer William Shockley) the equally brilliant Robert Noyce was experimenting with miniature circuits of his own. In 1959, he used a series of photographic and chemical techniques known as the planar process (which had just been developed by a colleague, Jean Hoerni) to produce the first, practical, integrated circuit, a method that Fairchild then tried to patent. How does integrated circuit work in PCB? Integrated Circuit are crucial in almost all electronic equipment and devices. ICs act as the primary component that condenses functionality for high-level tasks. It includes signal processing, amplification, refined digital calculations as with microprocessors, etc. The possibility of getting an electronic product that does not rely on an integrated chip is slim in this dispensation. Integrated Circuit is also instrumental in the miniaturization of electronic products, enhancing their performance, reducing costs etc. For instance, the cost reduction function of integrated Circuit comes about by offering the relatively cost-effective option of collecting a large amount of electronic and semiconductor components, besides mounting them on a circuit board. In case you had to implement all these in discrete components, it could amount to about 250. However, in ICs, the components or parts number can reduce to around 10. It implies that the overall material count reduces with integrated Circuit, and the production process stages also get simplified.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/12/2023 13:57
How to Do Soldering on PCB in PCB Industry?
Just because there’s machinery involved in the wave-soldering process does not mean it is any less prone to errors than soldering each joint by hand. Whether you’re using a solder tank or a hand iron, you need to treat soldering like the precise science it is, carefully controlling where and what you solder. In this passage, we will tell you everything about PCB soldering and if you are curious about it please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the basic definition of PCB? PCB soldering is another term for the process of soldering electrical circuit boards. This type of soldering is one of the most basic techniques that anyone wishing to work with electronics and electrical circuits must learn. While there are many different ways you can complete the soldering process, the most basic explanation of the soldering process is that it’s a way of joining two small pieces together on the surface of the PCB, which stands for Printed Circuit Board. In other words, soldering is a way of connecting two or more different electrical components on your circuit board. At the core of the soldering process, the action itself is quite simple. All you need to complete the simplest soldering job is a soldering iron, some solder and the materials that you’re soldering together. A soldering iron looks a bit like a pen and is a tool that gets extremely hot, melting the solder and using it to join your two pieces together. While there are different types of solder, it is usually a metal alloy of lead or tin combined with brass or silver, designed to have a low melting point. As the soldering iron melts this metal, it is then used a bit like glue to stick to pieces together. As the solder metal cools, it will re-harden into one large shape that connects the two parts. What is soldering bridge in PCB soldering? When PCB soldering components are on a printed circuit board, you may encounter cases of solder bridging. Solder bridging takes place the moment two solder joints connect. When the two solder joints connect, they form an undesired connection that might eventually lead to short circuits on the board. When two or more pins bridge together, you'll encounter trouble with your boards. Some of the significant causes of solder bridging include the following: · We cannot fail to orient the same types of components in the same direction.· We cannot fail to leave enough space between the pads and the solder mask layer.· Designing and manufacturing printed circuit boards without paying attention to weight distribution. Such happens, especially when small components all sit on one side of the board. How to process the PCB soldering? Prepare Your SurfaceThe key to a good soldering job is to start with a clean surface. To ensure your PCB board is clean and ready for soldering, use an industrial cleaning pad to wipe the surface clear of any dust and debris. You may also use an acetone cleaner to give it an additional wipe down. Finally, you might try giving it a few blasts of compressed air, as these will remove any small particles stuck in the board. Place the ComponentsUnless you’re working with an exceptionally simple circuit board, you’ll likely only be soldering one or two components at once, as opposed to doing the entire board in one session. We recommend starting with the smaller pieces and working up to the larger ones. This helps keep the board flat and balanced as the process begins, rather than weighing it down on one side with a single heavy piece. Begin by selecting a few small components and placing them where they belong on the board. Bend the leads as you find you need to and insert the component into the holes where they belong. If you’re having trouble getting the piece to stay still once you aren’t holding it in place, try bending the leads so that they rest at a 45-degree angle along the bottom of the board. In the act of solderingHold your soldering iron at the base of the handle like you would with a pencil, as to not burn yourself with the tip. The soldering iron should make contact with the leg, or lead, of a component and the trace on the PCB. Next, hold the iron tip on the desired junction/joint for a couple of seconds and feed a bit of solder onto the solder tip where it’s touching the joint. The solder should melt and flow smoothly. Only use enough solder to form a tiny volcano-shaped joint. Next, remove the solder and iron, while keeping the newly joined components still for a few seconds while the joint hardens. The joint should be cone shaped and shiny. If not, reheat and feed in more solder or desolder and try again. DesolderingUnless you are a well-tested robot, you’ll need to remove the solder (desolder) a joint at some point along the way. Whether it’s to reposition, remove, or add a component, there are two ways to get the job done. The first method is to use a desoldering pump with an electrostatic discharge (ESD) nozzle. An ESD protects the ICs that can be compromised by static electricity. To begin, you’d push the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks, setting up the pump. Next, apply the iron tip and the nozzle to the joint and wait a few seconds for the solder to melt. To release the plunger and suck up the molten solder, just press the button on the desoldering pump. Remove as much solder as possible and repeat as needed. Lastly, make sure to empty the pump every once in a while by unscrewing the nozzle and shaking the little misshapen balls of solder into the trash.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/10/2023 16:24
How to Package PCB during Manufacturing Industry?
In its simplest form, SMD package selection may be thought of as identifying a device that meets your functionality requirements while fitting within any space restrictions or limitations your design may have. However, you should also incorporate rules and guidelines for your board’s fabrication and PCB assembly; this is best done by including your contract manufacturer (CM) early in the design process. By collaborating with your CM before and during the prototyping process, you can utilize SMD package selection options that may reduce board turnaround time and cost. In this passage, we are providing all the information about package PCB during the PCB manufacturing. If you are looking for more professional knowledge about PCB package, please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the classifications of PCB packaging? If the PCB package is distinguished according to the installation method, it can be divided into mounted devices, plug-in devices, mixed devices (mounting and plug-in devices exist at the same time), and special devices. Special devices generally refer to sinker devices. PCB packaging can be divided into the following categories if it is distinguished by function and device shape: SMD: Surface Mount Devices / surface mount components.RA: Resistor Arrays / exclusion.MELF: Metal electrode face components/metal electrode face components without leadCFP: Ceramic Flat Packs/Ceramic Flat Pack.PQFP: Plastic Quad Flat Pack/Plastic Quad Flat Pack.SQFP: Shrink Quad Flat Pack/Shrink Quad Flat Pack.CQFP: Ceramic Quad Flat Pack/Ceramic Quad Flat Pack.PLCC: Plastic leaded chip carriers/ plastic packaged leaded chip carriers.LCC: Leadless ceramic chip carriers/ leadless ceramic chip carriers.QFN: Quad Flat Non-leaded package/Four-side no lead flat package.DIP: Dual-In-Line components.PBGA: Plastic Ball Grid Array/Plastic Ball Grid Array device.RF: Radio frequency and microwave devices.AX: Non-polarized Axial-Leaded Discretes/non-polarized axial pin discrete components.CPAX: Polarized capacitor, axial/polarized axial pin capacitor.CPC: Polarized capacitor, cylindricals/ with polarized cylindrical capacitors.CYL: Non-polarized cylindricals/non-polarized cylindrical components.DIODE: diode.LED: Light-emitting diode.DISC: Non-polarized Offset-leaded Discs/discrete components with no polarity bias pins.RAD: Non-polarized Radial-Leaded Discretes/Non-polarized Radial-Leaded Discretes.TO: Transistors Outlines, JEDEC compatible types/transistor shapes, JEDEC component types.VRES: Variable resistors/adjustable potentiometer.PGA: Plastic Grid Array / plastic package array device.RELAY: Relay/relay.SIP: Single-In-Line components/single-row pin components.TRAN: Transformer/transformer.PWR: Power module/power module.CO: Crystal oscillator/ crystal oscillator.OPT: Optical module/optical device.SW: Switch/switch device (specially refers to non-standard package).IND: Inductance/inductance (specially refers to non-standard packages). What are the advantages of package? PoP technology is being widely applied by OEMs owing to its impressively advantages: • Flexibility - Stacking structure of PoP provides OEMs such multiple selections of stacking that they are able to modify functions of their products at ease. For example, they are allowed to modify low-memory chip into high-memory chip to cater to newly-coming demands without need to change circuit board design of motherboard. • Overall size reduction • Shrinking overall cost • Reducing motherboard complexity • Improving logistics management • Enhancing technology reuse levelWanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/09/2023 15:24
What Is PCB Thermal Analysis for PCB Industry?
In high power density PCB, it is difficult to control heat generation. This occurs because there are many channels of traction power at the same time and many elements that depend on the current supply at the same time. High power density PCBS are not necessarily bad designs; Some applications require high power density to perform various functions. In these cases, the efficient use of space is critical, as any crosstalk may quickly cause a thermal peak. If you are looking for more information about PCB Thermal, please check and read the content below for more professional knowledge in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the Importance of PCB thermal management? Current silicon-based components have a junction temperature between about 125°C and 200°C. However, it is necessary to avoid reaching this value, otherwise the residual life of the component will deteriorate rapidly. In fact, it is estimated that an increase in operating temperature of 20°C, due to inefficient thermal management, can reduce component life by up to 50%. High brightness LEDs, for instance, convert over 60% of the absorbed power into heat and therefore require special printed circuit boards capable of handling high temperatures without damaging the components. The growing popularity of wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors, such as gallium arsenide (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC), has allowed components to reach higher operating temperatures than silicon-based technology. This, however, has not eliminated the need for accurate thermal management, capable of evenly distribute the generated heat, avoid the formation of dangerous heat accumulation points (hot spots) and minimizing power losses. Figure 1 shows an electronic circuit subjected to thermal scanning by infrared camera: the red colored parts correspond to the points of greatest heat concentration. What is the defination of PCB thermal paste? The most generic definition for thermal paste is that it is a paste chemically constructed to allow for heat transfer. Its composition is a liquid polymer, that may include urethanes, acrylates, silicones and epoxies. The most typical function for thermal paste is as a filler between two surfaces to provide a solid interface and increase the volume of heat transfer between the surfaces. With this primary function it may be surprising that the heat transfer rate may range from approximately 3W/(m·K) to 13W/(m·K) for non-metallic pastes, which is far below the 385W/(m·K) for 99% pure copper. What is the motivation of PCB thermal management? The main reason for deficiencies of electrical systems beside dust, vibration and humidity is by far the impact of temperature. Therefore an efficient thermal management concept on the PCB is crucial for the reliability of power electronic systems. As an example we take high power LED applications, which are likely to dominate in the next years residential and commercial lighting, signaling and vehicle headlights due to efficiency and extended lifetime. LEDs that range from 500 milliwatts to as much as 10 watts in a single package have become standard, and researchers expect even higher power in the future. Thermal management is of critical importance for high power LEDs. More than 60% of the electrical power input is converted into heat and built up at the junctions of LED chips due to non-radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs and low light extraction. If that heat is not removed, the LEDs run at high temperature, which not only lowers their efficiency, but also makes the LED more dangerous, less reliable and shortens operating life. Thus, thermal management of high power LEDs is a crucial area of research and development. In this paper results of simulations and measurements of different LED-modules will be shown and should serve as representative of thermal solutions for general high power applications. What are the techniques of thermal management in PCB? PCB fabrication requires both heat and pressure in order to laminate the layers together, while the soldering process will heat the board up during assembly. Wave soldering will run the exposed components leads on the bottom side of the board through a molten wave of solder, and solder reflow requires the entire board to be baked in an oven. Here are some of the thermal problems that are associated with circuit board manufacturing: Bow and twist: If the metal coverage throughout the different layers of the board is not consistent, it can cause the board to bow or twist during fabrication. For instance, if the first three layers of a six-layer board have a higher percentage of metal than the bottom 3 layers, the board will be out of balance. This imbalance can result in the board warping as the high heat and pressure are applied during fabrication. Bad solder joints: These often happen because the metal around the pin to be soldered behaves as a heat sink and robs heat from the connection during wave solder. As a result, the solder doesn’t melt correctly, leaving a cold and unreliable solder joint. The solution in cases like this is to use a thermal relief pad to concentrate the heat on the solder joint. A thermal relief pad from a PCB design CAD system A thermal relief pad like this will help focus the heat on the pin to create a better solder joint Tombstoning: This is a condition where a thermal imbalance between the two pins of a small surface mount component causes the part to stand up vertically during solder reflow, just like a tombstone. The thermal imbalance occurs when one of the pins is connected to a large area of metal, which acts as a heat sink. This allows the solder on the other pin to melt faster pulling the part up with it. To prevent this, PCB designers should use thermal relief type connections when connecting pins to large areas of metal.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/06/2023 15:46
How to Check Signal Integrity in the PCB Industry for Beginner?
Extensive research has been done on the best way to design transmission lines so high-speed signals can travel at maximum efficiency. To reduce potential problems with signal integrity and other transmission issues, it’s important to make sure your PCB supplier provides boards with a strong design. In this passage, we will provide you all the details about signal integrity in PCB design process. If you are a beginner of PCB industry and curious about the signal integrity in PCB design, please check and read the content below in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. How to process the proper routing for signal integrity in PCB? Like adequate grounding, the appropriate path is necessary. If designers intend to avoid signal integrity problems, proper routing is essential. When it comes to electronic design, you will often hear of the term routing. Wire routing, also known as routing, is one of the steps when designing printed circuit boards. Again, routing all the cables in the right way is essential. It is true when you want to do away with signal integrity problems. Unfortunately, a lot of circuit designers tend to forget this step. For instance, signal cables need routing, away from power sources and all electrical fixtures. Higher voltages tend to increase electrical noise. Electrical noise is a signal integrity problem for many. For instance, electric motors are not the best choice as they tend to produce some magnetic field. But how far should you route your cables? It all depends on aspects such as the size of the magnetic field and voltage. But you need to do your best to ensure that you do not have a noisy signal through improper routing. How to invest the termination for signal integrity in PCB? A terminating resistor is essential when you want to avoid signal integrity problems. Terminating resistors are signal quality components. Designers use them in soaking up AC signals. They do this to prevent reflections on the line. Unmatched impedance along transmission lines will result in signal integrity problems. Termination resistors bring about the desired signal integrity. Termination resistors increase performance and speed and reduce intermittent errors. By investing in terminating resistors, designers can do away with a lot of noise. This way, they will be able to improve signal integrity during PCB design. The main aim of terminating resistors is to improve signal integrity. But, designers need to select the best fit suitable for their applications. Some of them include: · Parallel Termination、· RF termination、AC Termination· Thevenin Termination· Series Termination What are the challenges during signal integrity in PCB? PCB signal integrity issues mainly include signal reflection, crosstalk, signal delay, and timing errors. Reflection When the signal is transmitted on the transmission line, when the characteristic impedance of the transmission line on the high-speed PCB does not match the source impedance or load impedance of the signal, the signal will be reflected, causing the signal waveform to overshoot, undershoot and the ringing phenomenon caused by it. Overshoot refers to the first peak (or bottom) of the signal transition. It is an additional voltage effect above the power supply level or below the reference ground level. Undershoot refers to the signal jump change to the next valley (or peak). Excessive overshoot voltage often impacts the device for a long period of time, causing damage to the device. Undershoot will reduce the noise margin. Ringing increases the time required for signal stabilization, which affects system timing. Crosstalk In PCB, crosstalk refers to the undesired noise interference caused by the electromagnetic energy through the mutual capacitance and mutual inductance coupling to the adjacent transmission line when the signal propagates on the transmission line. It is caused by interaction of different structures of the electromagnetic field in the same area. Mutual capacitance causes coupling current, which is called capacitive crosstalk; while mutual inductance causes coupling voltage, which is called inductive crosstalk. On the PCB, crosstalk is related to trace length, signal line spacing, and the condition of the reference ground plane. Signal delay and timing error The signal is transmitted at a limited speed on the wires of the PCB, and the signal is sent from the driver to the receiver, with a transmission delay in between. Excessive signal delays or mismatched signal delays can lead to timing errors and disrupted logic device functionality.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 01/04/2023 14:32
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