What Is the Process of Rapid PCB Manufacturing?
The manufacturing process of a PCB is pretty extensive. Whether you a PCB manufacturer or others, steps are crucial to the development of the board. Because each step is so critical to the process, let’s take a close look at the manufacturing process of a PCB. And we are talking about the manufacturing process in the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the basic PCB design rules? Material rules for PCB design Consider during the layout phase the materials and components you plan to use for your board. You’ll first need to make sure the desired items are accessible. Some materials and parts are hard to find, while others are so expensive they’re cost-prohibitive. Different components and materials may also come with different designs needs. Take time to ensure you’ve chosen the optimal materials and components for your board, and also that you’ve designed a board that plays to those items’ strengths. The routing guidelines for PCB design Printed circuit board design rules and PCB layout guidelines become more complex as the number of layers in your stackup increases. Your routing strategy will require alternating horizontal and vertical traces in alternating layers unless you separate each signal layer with a reference plane. In very complex boards for specialized applications, many of the commonly-touted PCB best practices may no longer apply, and you'll need to follow PCB design guidelines that are particular to your application. Defining net widths Your printed circuit board design will likely require different nets that will carry a wide range of currents, which will dictate the required net width. With this basic requirement in mind, it’s recommended to provide a 0.010” width for low current analog and digital signals. Printed circuit board traces that carry more than 0.3 A should be wider. Here’s a free Trace Width Calculator that makes this process easy. You can also use this calculation (based on IPC-2152) to determine your PCB trace width. What are the common surface treatment processes of PCB? Hot air leveling Hot air leveling, also known as hot air solder leveling, is a process of applying molten tin-lead solder to the surface of the PCB and leveling it with heated compressed air to form a coating that is both resistant to copper oxidation and provides good solderability. When the hot air is leveled, the solder and copper form a copper-tin intermetallic compound at the junction. The thickness of the solder that protects the copper surface is approximately 1-2 mils. The PCB is immersed in molten solder during hot air leveling; the air knife blows liquid solder before the solder solidifies; the air knife minimizes the meniscus of the solder on the copper surface and prevents solder bridging. Hot air leveling is divided into vertical type and horizontal type. It is generally considered that the horizontal type is better, mainly because the horizontal hot air leveling coating is relatively uniform and can realize automatic production. The general process of the hot air leveling process is: micro-etching→preheating→coating flux→spraying→cleaning. What are main PCB heat dissipation techniques? Identifying thermal and high-current traces To fabricate a thermally stable PCB, thermal effects must be studied during the designing phase itself. The first step in thermal design is to identify the hotspots. Thermal modeling or thermal simulation techniques are used to find hotspots. Also, current flow analysis must be done along with it, because high-current traces cause heat generation. The proper geometrical arrangement of components and high-current traces enables even distribution of heat. High-current traces must be routed away from thermally sensitive components such as sensors and Op-amps. Use wider traces for reduce heat Copper traces that conduct high currents build up heat. Therefore, it is important to increase the width of the trace to maximize heat dissipation to the air. Doing so also reduces the thermal resistance of the trace and reduces heat spots. PCB thermal vias design You can turn a PCB into an onboard heat sink by incorporating thermal via arrays over copper-filled areas, as shown above. The idea behind doing so is to have heat flowing from components to the copper area and dissipating through the air from the vias. Usually, thermal via arrays are used for power management modules and components with thermal pads. When implementing thermal via arrays, remember that it needs to have a reasonably large diameter, in the region of 0.1 mm, for the heat to be dissipated effectively. Also, ensure the vias are not thermal-relief pads but padded holes that are connected to the copper area at all sides. Increasing the number of thermal vias further helps with heat dissipation. Proper material to help heat dissipation There are materials other than epoxy resins that are better suited to dissipate disproportionate levels of heat such as polyimides or metal cores. If these materials are used, the decision has to be made upfront as these materials will have very different electrical characteristics, completely changing the structure of the design.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/25/2022 10:25
How Schematic Capture Works in PCB Manufacturing Process?
Once your schematics are finished and you're ready to start the PCB layout process, your design tools can help automate the transition into a physical design. Rather than exporting a netlist from the schematic editor and re-importing it into a PCB editor, the best tools can bypass this process and can directly import your component data into a new PCB layout. If you are looking for more information about schematic capture in PCB manufacturing, please check and read the content below for more professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the transition of schematic capture in PCB manufacturing? The schematic capture process needs to include everything within the circuit design necessary to work, including the electrical connections with its environment. Thus, attention to detail is vital; any omissions in the circuit design captured schematically can cause headaches down the line when things don’t work as expected and potentially costly diagnosis and corrective actions. However, always double-check each circuit diagram in your schematic sheets before committing to manufacturing the board. Most packages include rule check features that can uncover easy-to-miss errors like opens and shorts. These aren’t a substitute for a manual schematic design review. To answer the question of “what is schematic capture?” It’s a process that allows the designer to simulate their circuit to validate their design and then create an optimum PCB layout with minimum effort. However, at each step of the process, the designer needs to perform careful checks to prevent errors affecting the following steps. Simulation tools and PCB design packages can make the designer’s life easier by automating the transition from schematic sheets into a PCB layout. Still, they are never perfect, and the designer should never rely on the outputs of a tool without reviewing thoroughly. Circuit designers, PCB layout engineers, and simulation engineers trust the complete set of schematic capture tools in Altium Designer®. When a design is finished and ready to be released to manufacturing, the Altium 365™ platform makes it easy to collaborate and share your projects. What is the process of schematic capture in PCB manufacturing? The schematic capture part of the design process is today undertaken interactively. Prior to the schematic capture of the design, the initial high level design must be undertaken. Then in years gone by, breadboards of the circuit would be made up and made to work before committing to the schematic stage. Now with highly sophisticated circuit simulation software, the circuit is designed interactively during the schematic capture stage and the circuit simulated using software rather than building a hardware version of the circuit. By using a computer based system for schematic capture, it is possible to enter very complicated circuits into a computer relatively quickly. It is also possible to undertake the design of the board and perform circuit simulations while the basic design is underway. In addition to this, many circuit capture systems provide a means by which the circuit revisions can be managed and configuration controlled properly. Where a circuit is being repeatedly updated, and there may be the possibility of several people working on different areas, this is of great importance. Elements entered into a schematic have a shape associated with them for the schematic. In this way a shape designed for a particular part will be pre-drawn and appear on the circuit every time that particular type of part appears on the circuit. When using an end-to-end design suite, the full shape may also include the PCB outline, pads and the like. In this way the part number for that part defines all the elements of the part for the design. What are the difference between schematics and PCB layout drawings? The 2D layout of a basic circuit is not yet ready to be laid out on the printed circuit board. The printed circuit board consists of layers. The simplest PCB consists of a copper layer and a substrate layer. The copper layer is conductive and creates the circuit, while the substrate provides a surface that components can be glued, screwed, or otherwise attached to. The schematic showing where key components will be mounted doesn’t tell the PCB manufacturer how to make the PCB unless you’re making a basic breadboard. The design process is more complex when you have a 3D schematic with thru-holes, whether this is necessary for the SMT or surface mount technology component to reach an inner copper layer or connect it to something on the other side of the board. A 3D model of your circuit board won’t necessarily give PCB manufacturers the details they need to make the product, either. This is where schematic capture and PCB layout software comes in. How to defining electronic circuitry in PCB schematic capture? Schematic capture is the process of designing electronic circuitry in a PCB design CAD system. As the CAD system will allow you to copy, cut, paste, or delete circuitry, design engineers often do many iterations of their work before the design is complete. There is however a basic work-flow for schematic capture which looks like this: Component placement: The designer will start by placing the symbols on the schematic. The design tools will give the user the ability to rotate and maneuver the symbols where desired to achieve the most optimum placement. The goal here is to keep the symbols neat and organized with enough space between them to be easily readable without wasting space that could be used for other parts.Drawing nets: Here is where the designer will connect the different component pins together in the schematic so that the nets can be routed as traces in the PCB layout. Usually, this is a manual drafting process of drawing each line, or net, from one pin to another. The designer is aided in this task with definable grids in the CAD system plus many other automated features. In some cases, the CAD system will allow the user to combine multiple nets into a single net group so that they are drawing one line instead of 8, 16, or more. Again, readability is the key, and the CAD system will usually add visible net names such as VCC or GND to clarify which net is which. Documentation information: In addition to being an electronic database, the schematic is also a document that will be used for manufacturing, test, and fieldwork. As such it needs to have all of the necessary corporate, legal, and tracking information on it to fulfill your company’s requirements. This can include board and project names, part and revision numbers, sheet titles and numbers, and company contact information and logos.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/25/2022 10:21
How to Decide Trace Width in PCB Design and manufacturing？
In today’s PCB layouts, each net may have different and unique routing characteristics that have to be applied to it in order for it to function as designed. In addition to specific areas that nets can be routed in or layers that they can be routed on, there are also different PCB trace width and spacing rules that have to be managed as well. Do you know the methods of deciding trace width in PCB design? If you are searching for the information about ir, please check and read the content below for more knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What is the importance of determining PCB trace width? During the production of PCBs, you may trace a PCB successfully and then later discover that it will not be able to carry the needed amount of current effectively. Consequently, the printed circuit boards intended application experiences a setback. This is due to the inadequate current capacity. Making use of your PCB trace width calculator ensures the conductance of the right current value. Using this circuit calculator, you may utilize the highest current rating you desire to know the width of your trace. In addition, you may influence the rise in temperature which your PCB records. This is possible by making use of your PCB trace width calculator. The important factors to consider when selecting a trace width include: · The current capacity of the trace· Space availability and manufacturing limitations· Trace termination · Impedance What are the rules of standard PCB trace width? So far, we have looked at how trace width and spacing restrictions affect the performance of the board electrically, but there are also manufacturing concerns as well. Traces that are too close to each other or to other metal features of the board could potentially develop shorts during fabrication. Each fabricator will have its own minimum trace width that they will build, but 3 mils is a common minimum spacing value. Copper weight also must be factored in here as well. Here are some other manufacturing considerations for trace width and spacing restrictions: · Traces running between the pads under small surface mount components may have the minimum trace to metal spacing, but can still cause manufacturing problems. The part may not sit squarely resulting in tombstoning, or form a solder bridge with a trace and cause damage if the part is lifted for re-work. · Metal that is too close to the edge of the board could present depanelization problems. Additionally, exposed copper could come into contact with other conductive elements and cause a short on the board. · Traces that are too wide on the surface mount pads could form solder bridges with adjacent pads or traces. These could cause excess current or shorts. · It is also important that drill hole sizes match the traces to which they connect. Although vias run through the board they serve the same function as traces that run along the surface. In many cases, they are extensions of them. How to choose the right PCB trace width? These trace width calculators will prompt you to enter design specifications such as the thickness of copper, the maximum amperage that will pass through the trace, the length of the trace, and the acceptable increase in temperature due to the resistance of the trace dissipating power. After entering these values you will be presented with a calculated trace width. It is important to note that this value is a minimum width required to meet the design criteria inputs. Determining the width of a trace based on the current demands is important for most power traces and high power signals, however, most traces on PCBs pass signals which draw negligible current. For these low power signal traces, we must look at other characteristics of the PCB to determine the width. The size of a PCB is directly connected to the cost of the PCB, so in general PCBs are kept as small as possible. The downside of reducing board size is that it can limit the available space to route traces. For low power signal traces it is generally advised to keep traces small to increase the available space available for routing. Excessively large traces consume valuable PCB space while offering highly diminished returns. 6 to 30 mils is typical for most signal trace widths. MacroFab offers a minimum of 5mil traces as a standard and if smaller traces are required, the extended manufacturing option will allow traces all the way down to 3mil.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/25/2022 10:05
How to Deal Via Stitching for PCB High Current Traces?
Many systems utilize a lot of power in their operation, and the circuit boards within these systems will need to conduct high current. However, if a board isn’t designed correctly for that level of current, it can fail either electrically or structurally. For example, a circuit board that doesn’t use enough metal to conduct the current through its power planes and traces may become too hot. This heat, if not distributed correctly, can affect the normal operation of components that are not designed for it. Eventually, the heat will create a domino scenario where more and more parts are affected, eventually resulting in the failure of the circuit board. If you are curious about Via Stitching in PCB manufacturing, please check and read the content below for more information about Via Stitching in PCB manufacturing.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more. What are high current concerns on PCB? Via stitching is run as post-process, filling free areas of copper with stitching vias. For via stitching to be possible, there must be overlapping regions of copper that are attached to the specified net, on different layers. Supported regions of copper include Fills, Polygons and Power Planes. Another example of the potential negative effects of high current on a circuit board is the physical failure of the board’s structure. The materials used in the fabrication of the raw circuit board will tolerate a lot of heat, but only up to a certain level. FR-4, which is the standard material used for PCB fabrication, has a glass transition temperature (Tg) rating of 130 degrees Celsius. Beyond that point, its solid form will become unstable and may begin to melt. Even before that temperature is reached, however, the heat may end up burning through any thin metal traces on the board, creating an open circuit like a blown fuse. To avoid these and other high current problems, care must be used in how these circuits are designed in PCB layout. What are the guidelines of via stitching in PCB manufacturing? One of the important keys to routing high current circuits is to use a lot of metal. This can be done with wider traces, copper pours, and stitching vias. Stitching vias are used to join the routing of high current circuits on multiple layers of the circuit board. If a trace on one layer is insufficient to carry the amount of current that is needed, then the trace can be routed on multiple layers and stitched together with vias. If two different power layers have the same width trace on them for carrying the current, it will double the current carrying capacity helping to keep the board size smaller instead of having to space the trace out on a single layer. Stitching vias do have some concerns to be aware of though. The first is that the high current traces will also be conducting heat. The stitching vias will absorb this heat, but the heat still needs to be dissipated through a thermal via to an external layer of the board for cooling. The stitching vias don’t have to be large, but there have to be enough of them to conduct all of the current and heat without being overloaded. You also need to ensure that you have provided an adequate current return path in your design. In some cases, multiple traces and stitching vias end up taking the place that was needed for a current return path and create a current loop instead. Some other effective methods of conducting high current are to use wider traces and copper pours. If the traces aren’t wide enough to carry the current, there could be areas of high heat that could affect the board’s ability to provide the steady-state current requirements for the rest of the circuitry. This can impact the performance of other components as they push their maximum temperature constraints, and the entire board may fail to perform as intended. There are a lot of different tactics that can be used when planning for high currents in your PCB design, and your PCB contract manufacturer can help you work through the different options. What are the considerations of high current design on PCB? Removing solder mask It is an inexpensive or rather free method to increase the current capability of a trace, and a path can have its solder mask removed, which then exposes the copper underneath. Then additional solder can be added onto the trail, which will increase its thickness and bulk and lower resistance. It will then allow more current to be carried by that trace without increasing the trace width or paying extra for additional copper thickness. Using polygon pours under high current components. Individual components, such as large FPGAs and Processors, have extensive current requirements and many power pins. They also often come in BGA and LGA packages. A trick to get enough current to them quickly is to have square polygon pours right under the chip and then having Vias drop down and connecting to them. You can then click the polygon pour to a thick power traces. Using internal layers for high current paths If you run out of space for thick traces on the outer layers, it's often an excellent approach to have a solid fill in an internal layer and then using vias to connect to high current devices on outer layers. Adding copper bars for very high current In specific applications such as high power inverters and electric automobiles, the current can often be 100A or more. In such cases, it becomes pointless to use traces. A common practice here is to use solderable copper bus bars that solder onto a PCB's pads and then carry most of the high current. Since the bars are much thicker than traces on a PCB, they can easily take an order of magnitude larger draft than regular hints while having around the same width.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/24/2022 10:39
5 Important Factors of High Voltage PCB Layout Guidelines
When creating a PCB for high voltage DC bias, standards and precautions become much more stringent. High voltage PCB materials and design for arc prevention ensure the final product is safe and functional. Avoid increased costs and danger by keeping these PCB materials and design tips in mind. Are going to search for more information about high voltage PCB layout? If you are curious about high voltage PCB layout, please check and read the content below for more professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the features of high voltage PCB? Isolation Slots and cut-outs Most high voltage boards require isolation slots and board cut-outs near any board section, which carries high voltage. In many consumer devices like chargers and power supplies, these slots and board cut-outs are mandatory to pass certain safety standards. These features add an extra layer of safety and would help in high humidity environments and cases where contamination is likely. Isolation slots and cut-outs will usually have to define on a mechanical layer of the board. Board Material Standard FR-4 is not a good material for high voltage boards as it has low dielectric strength. Whenever the cost is not a constraint, it is better to go for a board material with a higher dielectric strength. Some of the high voltage rated materials are: 1.BT Epoxy2.Polyimide3.Isola Board Finishing The most underlooked and important factor when it comes to high voltage PCBs is the board finishing. It mainly includes the surface finish on the pads and any exposed traces. Mainly the finished board should have a smooth finish free of any bumps and should be even along the entire surface. Any imperfections on the high voltage pads like sharp points can result in a high electric field region, which can then cause arcing. What are the best design practices of high voltage PCB？ Time and again, manufacturers receive feedback from PCB users on high voltage boards. This information helps in creating best practices that can reduce the chances of errors in production. RoutingRouting best practices are essential to maintain when designing a high voltage PCB. Ideally, the designer maintains clearance between traces that have a high voltage difference in between. Moreover, it would be best to avoid any sharp edges because they can act as areas of high concentration of electric field. In the internal layers of the board, it’s crucial to avoid running high voltage traces as well. Internal LayersIt’s also vital to make a multi-layer PCB with a medium voltage on each layer. Filling the spaces between the layers requires caution. The thickness of each separation between layers must be .005” in order to maintain a balance in the overall PCB design. In high voltage PCBs, any voids or useless gaps disturb the dielectric value. Polygon PlanesYou should also consider increasing the polygon plane clearance until it touches a safe value in all high voltage PCBs. Internal planes in a multi-layer PCB should have the appropriate separation and a high voltage. This enables the smooth passing of the current without disrupting the other elements on the board. EMIYou may have heard about high voltage PCBs emitting a disturbance on a wide spectrum. To minimize this issue, you can shield the high voltage items after potting with the help of a metal sheet. A small loop area in the ground plane can greatly help in minimizing the disturbances.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/24/2022 10:16
All Basics of PCB Schematic Design Tutorial
Once you are working in your schematic capture system, there are some things that you can do to make sure that the design that you are creating will result in an easily assembled board: if you are curious about the PCB schematic design, please check and read the con tent below for more information.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the errors during PCB schematic design? It is very important to ensure that any schematic that has been captured is fully checked. While the simulation and other applications now available as part of an end-to-end design suite will trap and highlight many errors, some can still get through. Errors that creep through can be quite subtle. One that has been seen is where a particular node may be given slightly different names on different sheets. As the names are different they will not be connected by the computer. For example a node may be labelled "0v" on one sheet, but could appear as "gnd" on another. Accordingly it is very important to ensure that errors such as these do not creep through. Discipline in naming is essential. Computer based schematic capture has greatly simplified the process of drawing circuit diagrams. Circuit schematics can be drawn as the circuit is designed, and managed in such a way that there is little room for error. While errors can occur, the level of errors has fallen dramatically with the introduction of circuit schematic capture software. What information is needed for PCB schematic design? Contained within the schematic database is a lot of precise information that the PCB design CAD system needs in order to do its job. If you were able to peel back the cover of an electronic schematic, here is some of what you would find buried inside: Component data: Each symbol on a schematic is the logical representation of an actual physical component that will eventually be assembled to the circuit board. As such, these symbols, or components, need to contain part numbers, values, tolerances, and other important data that will be reported to the bill of materials. Some of the CAD components will be composed of either multiple symbols, or multiple instances of the same symbol, and those associations have to be managed. For like pins and gates in a component that can be swapped electrically, that information also has to be managed as well. In addition, schematic components will need their associated PCB footprint and SPICE model information for layout and circuit simulation. Connectivity data: Most of the component pins will be connected to other pins in the design, and that information makes up the connectivity portion of the database. Some pins will be connected to global power and ground nets, while most of the pins will be connected as individual nets. These nets can be grouped together in busses to clarify their intent for the circuit board layout designers, which is helpful when dealing with large groups of memory of data connections. For those pins that aren’t connected, they will sometimes be flagged as a “non-connected pin” in order to satisfy the connection requirements of the schematic design rules. Design rules: Non-connected pins are only one of the design rules that can be specified in the schematic database. Electrical requirements can be added to nets to ensure that they are designed with the proper length or routing topologies in the PCB layout. In many tools, the actual physical constraints such as trace width and spacing can be specified as well in the schematic. This gives the PCB designer more control over how the circuitry will be physically laid out. There are also many other schematic constraints that can be added such as connectivity rules to determine if the nets are connected to the correct pins. What are the considerations of PCB schematic design? Once you are working in your schematic capture system, there are some things that you can do to make sure that the design that you are creating will result in an easily assembled board: Start with your manufacturer There are a lot of ways that a circuit board can be built, and manufacturing times and prices can vary greatly depending on the processes and materials that are required. Many designs have been canceled because once they reached the manufacturer, the fabrication and assembly costs were so high or lead times were so lengthy that the board wasn’t affordable. To avoid this problem, work upfront with your vendors to make sure that you are designing a board that can be built within your time and cost budgets. Use approved components Another important consideration is the components that you will be using on the board. We’ve already talked about making sure that you are using approved parts in order to get the design right, but it goes further than that. You also need to make sure that the parts you are using are going to be available for the life cycle of the design, and their cost is within your budget. The last thing you need in the middle of building the board is to find out that a critical part is no longer available or is too expensive, requiring you to redesign the board. Make sure that the schematic and layout match All too often, the final layout of the board doesn’t match the schematic which leads to bad board builds. Problems like these can usually be traced back to a schematic change that was not incorporated into the board layout, or changes on the layout that weren’t back annotated into the schematic. Make sure that before you release the design for manufacturing that the schematic and layout are both finalized and updated, and then synchronized together. This way you will make sure that the schematic, bill of materials, and the layout all match together.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/24/2022 09:59
What Is Surface Mount Technology Used for PCB Assembly?
What separates surface mount from through-hole technology is that there is no need to drill holes in the circuit board to connect the tracks and the components. Establishing relationships through leads. The ingredients are in direct touch with the PADs of the circuit board And add solder paste to PAD with the help of stencil solder. There is also a pick and place machine responsible for placing the components on the solder paste set initially above the PAD. After setting these components, they have to be placed in a reflow oven or introduced in a vapor phase to be soldered permanently in the surface mount PCB assembly. If you are searching for more information about surface mount technology in PCB manufacturing, please check and read the content below for more professional knowledge.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the preparations before SMT PCB assembly? A few preparatory steps have to happen before real PCBA process even begins. This helps PCB manufacturers assess the functionality of a PCB design, and primarily includes a DFM check. Most companies specializing in PCB assembly need the design file of the PCB to start out, along with any other design notes and specific requirements. This is so the PCB assembly company can check the PCB file for any issues that may affect the PCB's functionality or manufacturability. This is a design for manufacturability check, or DFM check, for short. The DFM check looks at all the design specifications of a PCB. Specifically, this check looks for any missing, redundant or potentially problematic features. Any of these issues may severely and negatively influence the functionality of the final project. For example, one common PCB design flaw is leaving too little spacing between PCB components. This can result in shorts and other malfunctions. What is SMT and its advantages? Surface Mount Technology is a newer way of arranging components on printed circuit boards. For many years prior, electricians and engineers would use leads to fit circuit board components through holes. Careful preparation was necessary to ensure that all leads were formed in the right way to fit on various types of boards. SMT assembly is a more efficient process where components are soldered directly onto the board. By eliminating the need for passing leads through PCBs, the process has become faster, more efficient, and cost-effective. SMT assembly also saves space, allowing more components to be housed on a smaller board. This is why many modern devices are smaller but pack lots of features. SMT is a highly intricate process where each component is strategically positioned and mounted onto electrical boards for optimal functionality. This is one of the reasons why SMT and SMD overlap. Having an effective electrical device requires a combination of proper component selection and mounting strategies. During SMT, calculated amounts of solder paste are applied onto the board before a machine carefully mounts each component. How to choose PCB SMT factory? Choose the equipmentThis is the first and most important thing to do when choosing a production facility. The factory must be located in an area with excellent communication systems. It is suggested to ask the factory owner why they chose that area. Is it close to the railway or highway? Is it near the airport? These are all good questions to ask when choosing a factory. If you are going to have your own transportation, it becomes less important if it is close to transportation lines, but if you are going to use public transport, this will become a priority. Industry experienceMany factories will claim that they have been in the industry for a very long time, but this is not always true. If you are not careful, you may be cheated. Therefore, it is suggested that you should check the company’s records and find out how long they have been in business and whether or not they have a good reputation. The following are some of the methods to check if a factory has a good reputation. First, it is suggested to ask around about this factory by talking with other suppliers or customers who may know about them. Second, if possible, you should go to the factory and talk with its employees; their attitude towards you will show their reputation. Third, you can visit some of their customers and ask them what they think of the factory; their answers will also help your decision. Delivery AbilityThe next important thing to do when choosing a factory is checking their delivery ability. If a factory cannot deliver on time, it may render your project useless. Therefore, it is very important to check the factory’s delivery ability before making a purchase. How to decide which technology is best for design? Manufacturing tests like PCB functional test the best time to decide between an SMT or PTH part is when you are choosing the components that you will use in your schematic. By incorporating these parts early in the design, you will make sure that the PCB Layout is created with the correct component package footprints. Here are some questions to consider when making your decision: · Use: Will this component get “touched” much or be subjected to other stress?· Power: Will this component be conducting a lot of power and heat?· Performance: Which package style will give your circuit the best performance?· Price: Is there a price benefit by choosing one package style over the other?Availability: How quickly will the part be available for prototypes?Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2022 11:52
What Is the EMI EMC Standard in PCB Design?
Although the current level of semiconductor integration is getting higher and higher, many applications also have system-on-chips available at any time, and many powerful and out-of-the-box development boards are also more and more easily available, but many use cases in electronic products The application still needs to use a custom PCB. In one-time development, even an ordinary PCB can play a very important role. PCB is the physical platform for design and the most flexible part for electronic system design of original components. In this passage, we will provide you all the information of EMI EMC standard in PCB design process, please check and read the content below in this passage.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are PCB EMC and EMI? EMC is the abbreviation of electromagnetic compatibility, and EMC is the abbreviation of electromagnetic interference. EMC in a PCB is the circuit board's capability of working in its electromagnetic environment without emitting unbearable electromagnetic interference to other devices around. EMI refers to the negative effects or disruption of electromagnetic waves to one device from other devices or natural sources. EMI is also called electromagnetic noise. Every PCB designer tries to follow EMC configuration standards to keep the total amount of EMI and its effects to a minimum. What are EMC/EMI standards for PCB design? EMC standards fall into two broad categories: regulatory standards and industry standards. The regulatory standards for your design depend on where you want to market and sell your product (not necessarily where it is designed or manufactured). Some of the earliest EMC standards were established by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission in 1979. The European Community later defined their own EMC standards, which formed the basis for future European Union standards, now known as the EMC Directive - officially named Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2014/30/EU of the European Parliament (you can view the European standard here). Conformance to industry standards is not a legal matter, but is rather more of an industry-specific matter to ensure uniformity and interoperability among electronic equipment deployed in specific industries. Effectively, industry EMC standards play the same role as other industry standards on manufacturing, assembly, performance, etc. The major industry standards organizations, including IEC, ISO, SAE, IEEE, and CISPR, also defined a number of standards geared towards specific applications or industries. While IEC and CISPR standards are enforced in Europe, IEEE standards are more popular in the U.S. In particular, the IEEE standards forms the basis for antenna calibration tests. The U.S. military defines its own MIL-STD EMC requirements, which are among the most stringent standards worldwide. What Is the difference between EMC and EMI? Most PCBAs are not the only electronic or electrical devices within a product. Therefore, before we drill down into single-board EMI concerns, it is helpful to have a macro or system-level understanding of the EMI issue. Just as electromagnetic energy emanates from a single component, conductor, or trace, it also radiates from the board itself into the environment; if you haven’t before, place a gauss meter close to a PCB and you will get a reading. When multiple boards are in close proximity, it becomes important to achieve electromagnetic compatibility or EMC. EMC can be thought of as achieving an acceptable harmony or balance between electromagnetic elements so that the amount of interference is minimal or at least low enough not to significantly hamper normal operation. Unfortunately, the elimination of all EMI is not yet possible; however, obtaining EMC is. EMI, which is actually any interference from an electromagnetic source, is typically referring to interference on a single PCBA. This categorization is sufficient for investigating the issue, as the minimization of EMI on and from a circuit board contributes to the EMC of the environment in which the board operates. What are PCB design techniques to prevent EMI? There are a number of different design techniques to control electromagnetic interference on your PCB design in order to make it compatible with medical equipment standards. Some of these include the following: · Multilayer stackups: To best shield your high speed transmission lines, a stripline layer configuration in a multilayer board is preferred. By routing your sensitive traces between ground planes, you will be able to reduce the potential for broadside crosstalk to signals on other layers, and restrict emissions from radiating from the routing.· Bypass caps: Place these capacitors close to every power pin on the active components of your circuit board. These caps buffer current for the ICs that are switching, which reduces their need to pull current in rapid spikes from across the board.· Isolate different circuitry: It is important to maintain a separation between analog and digital circuitry to keep one from influencing the other. You will also want to make sure that each area of circuitry has its own dedicated ground plane. These grounds can be joined together all at one point, but you want to minimize any chance that digital return paths end up crossing through an analog ground plane.· Minimize trace lengths: Long looping traces may inadvertently create antennas that could radiate noise. It is also important for signal integrity to keep your entire signal path as short as possible from the driver, through its components, and ending at its termination. You can’t avoid lengthening traces on signals that have to match their lengths, but keep all the other traces as short as possible.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2022 10:20
POC VS MVP VS Prototype: Which Is Better in PCB Manufacturing?
In this passage, we are going to providing all the professional information of POC VS MVP VS Prototype in PCB manufacturing. If you are searching for more professional knowledge of POC VS MVP VS Prototype, please check and read the content below for more.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the differences of POC VS MVP VS Prototype in PCB manufacturing? POCA Proof of Concept is a mini project used to verify technical concepts such as technology, method, and integration. It is not mandatory to develop a POC if the concept is already available in the market. If your startup is innovating, the viability of the new concept’s practical implementation is an uncertain idea. It is used before you launch the product in the market and before product development. MVPWhat do you mean by Minimum Viable Product? An MVP has a minimum required set of features to serve their customers and gain instant feedback for further improvement. An MVP is a functional app loaded with superior features that represent the application. It lets you know what your users like and what they wait to get later. From a fundamental concept to existence, MVP is a primary system on its own that depicts your system’s basic version providing a small set of users and comments. It is a combination of microservices that mainly focus on creating one whole thing at a time. MVP is one of the most in-demand approaches for mapping product fit. PrototypeA prototype is an interactive mirror of your products’ eye that manifests the main design elements and determines the user flows. It focuses on determining the product look and understanding the fundamental project workflows that are to be included in the product development process. What is a Mobile app prototype? It shows how an app will flow from one screen to another and processes the app development. You can visualize the UX before you start developing your project. But when thinking about Prototype vs. Proof of concept, they are the same, giving an excellent idea of the kind of user experience you expect from your project. Which should you choose POC VS MVP VS Prototype? We’re now going to walk you through the specifics of each of these three approaches. Then we’ll take a look at the pros and cons for each concept, so you can get a better picture of what they have to offer. Proof-of-concept in app developmentA proof-of-concept (POC) tests whether a particular concept is feasible from a technical point of view. Basically, the POC application method needs to have a straightforward end goal in sight, and it has to demonstrate whether that goal can be achieved or not. Following the implementation of this process, all parties involved should be able to answer the question: can this be built? Different aspects can influence the decision to pursue a proof-of-concept in app development. Your product specifications will influence this decision and help you frame the concept you’re proofing. Let’s go through the most crucial aspects: Do you have a prototype created? It’s rare for a product to just have one feature and nothing much besides it. That’s why one part of the product definition process is to document and illustrate all the features your product entails through a prototype. When you have this done (we’ll go into details on this in the next section), then it’s worth taking the time to plan your development. High-risk features that need more coding time and don’t have proven functionality should be tackled first, through a proof-of-concept. If your make-or-break feature isn’t doable, there’s little point in investing in developing all the other functionalities of your product. Instead, you’re saving yourself those costs and creating a window of opportunity to pivot your product. Redirect your efforts towards a different take that generates value for your business and re-uses the proof of concept code in other ways. Whether you’re just playing with a new product idea or you plan to produce a new product at full scale, you’ll need to start with a POC for your new product. This gives you the chance to qualify whether your ideas are feasible in a product produced at scale. This important part of the NPI process affects the prototype and MVP design process. This important part of NPI also allows you to rigorously define the functionality requirements for your new product. Once you’ve defined your requirements and identified the components you need, you’re ready to start building a POC.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/23/2022 10:04
5 Effective Tips to Learn PCB Functional Testing Methods
Testing can help identify critical errors early on, increase yield and reduce costs, and improve overall quality and safety. PCB functional testing is one of the best and most versatile tools for verifying a board for usage in the real world, but it is just one of many testing methods in a manufacturer’s arsenal. With each testing method having its advantages and disadvantages, it can be difficult to determine the best test method for your situation and budget. In this article, we will review 5 of the most common PCBA testing methods. So it's necessary to carefully check and confirm the final design drawing provided by manufacturer prior to practical manufacturing so that manufactured PCBs conform to requirement of the last version. If you are looking for more about PCB functional testing, please check and read the content below.If you want to order PCB product, please check and custom your order online. What are the main types and advantages of PCB functional testing? Before a circuit board gets to the functional testing stage of its manufacturing, there are many other tests and inspections that it will go. These include: Manual inspections: Inspections are used to verify different aspects of the circuit board manufacturing processes. Some of these inspections use microscopes or close-up videos for detailed examinations. Automated Optical Inspection (AOI): These inspection systems use different video capabilities to compare images of the board to known “golden” images. They are used to check for shorts between metal, spacing violations, drilled hole breakout, solder paste application, finished solder connections, and the location and orientation of components on the board. X-ray: For circuit boards with complex and dense component placement, X-ray inspection systems are used to examine components such as BGA’s for solder defects. Here are some of the systems that can do some or all of the functional testing of a circuit board: Flying Probe: This system maneuvers between two and six probes around the board to contact tiny metal pads called test points built into the design. Primarily this machine is used to detect improper solder connections, but it can include some limited functional testing. However, with only six probes available at any one time, the range of testing is severely restricted. In-Circuit Test (ICT): The ICT system accesses the same onboard test points as the flying probe test. The difference is that the ICT system uses a test fixture with probes arranged to contact each test point simultaneously. The resulting coverage of test points not only allows the ICT system to work very fast, but it can also run sophisticated functional tests making it ideal for production builds of circuit boards. On the other hand, the ICT fixture is time-consuming and expensive to develop or modify, and therefore is generally not used for prototypes or low-volume production. CableScan: This testing system relies on connectors instead of test points to connect to the board and is a good fit for backplanes or other interface boards. CableScan will check every pin to each other through its connections, searching for assembly problems such as improper solder connections. Simultaneously, it will run functional test signals through the same connections. Functional testing is an integral part of producing high-quality circuit boards by verifying the PCB as operational before it is shipped to the customer. Here is where the abilities of your local PCB contract manufacturer are essential to the success of your circuit board build. What is the future of PCB functional testing? Industry insiders believe future functional test platforms will need many of the features found in today’s in-circuit test systems. For example, modularity is increasingly important to functional testing. Manufacturers are moving from proprietary functional testers to modular test systems that can be reconfigured. This makes more economic sense for electronics manufacturers who built custom systems for each individual application. Nolte predicts that functional testing will continue to move from hardware toward software. Today’s engineers "can make virtual test systems. Designers can pretty much grab what they need and convert these test systems from doing one job to doing another without having to replace hardware components," says Nolte. Another in-circuit testing trend that promises to expand into functional testing is the availability of public "libraries" of different test routines. Component manufacturers, for example, will begin providing functional test parameters of their components. "Someone’s going to make an operating system where you can just plug in these components and create a library of different things. So the next time that you come out with a product, you won’t have to start from scratch," says Lowenstein.Wanna know PCB knowledge? Check and read for more.
PCB Knowledge ⋅ 06/22/2022 10:43
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